Skip to main content

Table 2 Findings by CFIR domain and primary constructs

From: What is needed for implementing drug checking services in the context of the overdose crisis? A qualitative study to explore perspectives of potential service users

CFIR domain CFIR construct Findings
Outer setting
[Contextual factors that influence successful implementation] Patient needs and resources Stigma, trauma and criminalization; unpredictable illicit market; diverse population and needs
External policy and incentives Criminalization of drugs and people who use drugs
Intervention characteristics
[Key attributes of drug checking a harm reduction intervention that influence successful implementation] Relative advantage Low barrier and greater benefits than risks of criminalization
Evidence strength and quality Accuracy of drug checks providing information on composition using a small sample
Design quality and packaging Free and fast service
Adaptability Harm reduction messaging
Inner setting
[Key attributes of drug checking services and sites that influence successful implementation] Culture and compatibility Safety; respect; confidential and anonymous service; and harm reduction mandate
Available resources Multiple settings to meet diverse needs; paired with compatible services; pharmacies; mobile services
Characteristics of individuals
[Key attributes of drug checking staff that influence successful implementation] Knowledge and beliefs Skilled technicians and trust, respect and freedom from judgement
Process of implementation
[Key attributes related to the process of implementing drug checking services that influence successful implementation] Engaging and external change agents Engaging people with lived and living experience in implementation and the intervention