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Table 2 Findings by CFIR domain and primary constructs

From: What is needed for implementing drug checking services in the context of the overdose crisis? A qualitative study to explore perspectives of potential service users

CFIR domainCFIR constructFindings
Outer setting
[Contextual factors that influence successful implementation]Patient needs and resourcesStigma, trauma and criminalization; unpredictable illicit market; diverse population and needs
External policy and incentivesCriminalization of drugs and people who use drugs
Intervention characteristics
[Key attributes of drug checking a harm reduction intervention that influence successful implementation]Relative advantageLow barrier and greater benefits than risks of criminalization
Evidence strength and qualityAccuracy of drug checks providing information on composition using a small sample
Design quality and packagingFree and fast service
AdaptabilityHarm reduction messaging
Inner setting
[Key attributes of drug checking services and sites that influence successful implementation]Culture and compatibilitySafety; respect; confidential and anonymous service; and harm reduction mandate
Available resourcesMultiple settings to meet diverse needs; paired with compatible services; pharmacies; mobile services
Characteristics of individuals
[Key attributes of drug checking staff that influence successful implementation]Knowledge and beliefsSkilled technicians and trust, respect and freedom from judgement
Process of implementation
[Key attributes related to the process of implementing drug checking services that influence successful implementation]Engaging and external change agentsEngaging people with lived and living experience in implementation and the intervention