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Table 1 Population characteristics of study participants by tobacco use status (N = 4154)

From: Results from a 2018 cross-sectional survey in Tokyo, Osaka and Sendai to assess tobacco and nicotine product usage after the introduction of heated tobacco products (HTPs) in Japan

ParameterNever user totalCurrent user totalFormer user total
Total2697.9 (64.9%)779.4 (18.8%)674.5 (16.2%)
Gender
 Male947.2 (35.1%)565.7 (72.6%)526.5 (78.1%)
 Female1750.6 (64.9%)213.7 (27.4%)148.1 (21.9%)
Age (years)
 Mean (SE)51.4 (0.55)48.0 (0.64)57.8 (0.65)
 Median49.246.158.8
 Min202020
 Max988788
Highest level of education–n (%)
 Junior high school180.4 (6.7%)69.4 (8.9%)44.1 (6.5%)
 High school901.1 (33.4%)346.7 (44.5%)254.6 (37.7%)
 Professional training college360.1 (13.3%)105.0 (13.5%)83.1 (12.3%)
 Junior college316.7 (11.7%)27.1 (3.5%)23.0 (3.4%)
 College, university or graduate course858.5 (31.8%)210.8 (27.0%)258.4 (38.3%)
 Prefer not to answer78.5 (2.9%)20.3 (2.6%)11.3 (1.7%)
 Missing2.5 (0.1%)0.0 (0.0%)0.0 (0.0%)
Employment status–n (%)
 Agriculture, forestry or fisheries5.7 (0.2%)0.9 (0.1%)1.4 (0.2%)
 Self-employed, family business, professional255.2 (9.5%)121.1 (15.5%)118.3 (17.5%)
 Regular employee727.9 (27.0%)362.9 (46.6%)232.2 (34.4%)
 Non-regular employee (part-timer)520.3 (19.3%)127.5 (16.4%)87.2 (12.9%)
 Unemployed174.1 (6.5%)31.3 (4.0%)41.2 (6.1%)
 Student96.6 (3.6%)8.7 (1.1%)1.7 (0.3%)
 Full-time homemaker591.7 (21.9%)52.6 (6.8%)49.6 (7.4%)
 Pensioner259.4 (9.6%)53.3 (6.8%)131.8 (19.5%)
 Prefer not to answer65.3 (2.4%)21.0 (2.7%)11.1 (1.7%)
 Missing1.7 (0.1%)0.0 (0.0%)0.0 (0.0%)
Marital status–n (%)
 Never married597.5 (22.1%)164.1 (21.0%)59.4 (8.8%)
 Married1838.1 (68.1%)529.9 (68.0%)553.2 (82.0%)
 Cohabiting4.5 (0.2%)6.1 (0.8%)1.0 (0.1%)
 Widowed173.7 (6.4%)20.8 (2.7%)25.6 (3.8%)
 Divorced47.0 (1.7%)43.7 (5.6%)25.5 (3.8%)
 Prefer not to answer37.1 (1.4%)14.8 (1.9%)9.8 (1.5%)
 Missing0.0 (0.0%)0.0 (0.0%)0.0 (0.0%)
Annual household income–n (%)
 < 3 million yen406.0 (15.1%)112.4 (14.4%)111.4 (16.5%)
 3 million to < 5 million yen533.5 (19.8%)202.4 (26.0%)194.0 (28.8%)
 5 million to < 10 million yen736.7 (27.3%)250.5 (32.1%)196.7 (29.2%)
 ≥ 10 million yen192.3 (7.1%)63.9 (8.2%)58.7 (8.7%)
 No income38.9 (1.4%)4.1 (0.5%)3.9 (0.6%)
 I do not know319.5 (11.8%)45.3 (5.8%)18.0 (2.7%)
 Prefer not to answer469.2 (17.4%)100.8 (12.9%)90.6 (13.4%)
 Missing1.7 (0.1%)0.0 (0.0%)1.3 (0.2%)
  1. Prevalence is weighted to account for additional participants in the 20–24-year age group