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Table 1 Morphine sulphate extraction from 100-mg capsules using 2 mL of water. Comparison of the cold and lukewarm preparation techniques, according to the filter used

From: Reducing harm through the development of good preparation practices for the injection of slow release morphine sulphate capsules

  Mean morphine extraction (%) calculated for the total recovered volume (minimum–maximum)
Cold preparation technique Lukewarm preparation technique
No filtration 56% (50–60%) 97% (96–98%)
Cotton filter 58% (54–62%) 89% (84–93%)
Sterifilt 65% (62–69%) 89% (87–91%)
Sterifilt+ 53% (48–58%) 99% (93 to > 100%)
Wheel filter 51% (45–54%) 86% (84–96%)