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Table 1 Characteristics and prevalence of past-month opioid agonist therapy (OAT) uptake among people who inject drug in Iran in two consecutive bio-behavioral surveillance surveys in 2010 (N = 1783) and 2014 (N = 2166)

From: Opioid agonist therapy uptake among people who inject drugs: the findings of two consecutive bio-behavioral surveillance surveys in Iran

   2010 2014 P value*
Variables   N (%) People with OAT uptake
N (%)
Past-month OAT uptake in 2010 % N (%) People with OAT uptake
N (%)
Past-month OAT uptake in 2014 %
Overall   1783 790 (100.0) 49.2 2166 905 (100.0) 45.8 0.033
Sex Male 1732 (96.0) 759 (94.9) 48.6 2120 (98.7) 881 (98.2) 45.6 0.063
Female 51 (4.0) 31 (5.1) 63.2 46 (1.3) 24 (1.8) 64.4 0.902
Age at interview ≤35 1054 (57.3) 439 (54.1) 46.6 1075 (47.8) 403 (44.6) 42.8 0.077
>35 725 (42.7) 351 (45.9) 52.9 1089 (52.2) 501 (55.4) 48.6 0.072
Marital status Single (never married) 816 (44.9) 355 (43.8) 47.9 1000 (44.4) 380 (39.1) 40.4 0.001
Ever Married 967 (55.1) 455 (56.2) 50.2 1105 (55.6) 501 (60.9) 50.3 0.963
Income ≤ 200 USD (6,000,000 Rials) 1396 (76.9) 630 (78.0) 49.9 834 (39.9) 332 (40.0) 45.9 0.067
> 200USD (6,000,000 Rials) 331 (23.1) 138 (22.0) 47.0 1171 (60.1) 500 (60.0) 44.8 0.477
Education level High school and above 544 (30.7) 244 (29.0) 46.4 696 (33.0) 283 (31.7) 44.0 0.399
Less than high school 1237 (69.3) 545 (71.0) 50.4 1469 (67.0) 621 (68.3) 46.7 0.055
History of incarceration (ever) Yes 1418 (81.2) 624 (79.6) 53.2 1651 (79.8) 716 (82.9) 47.7 0.002
No 359 (18.8) 164 (20.4) 48.2 513 (20.2) 189 (17.1) 38.8 0.005
Substance use type in the past month** Only opioids 1218 (77.1) 584 (87.9) 51.5 384 (25.8) 174 (29.3) 46.7 0.100
Only non-opioids 126 (8.0) 3 (0.4) 2.0 119 (10.8) 32 (8.6) 32.9 <0.001
Opioids and non-opioids 213 (14.9) 69 (11.7) 35.6 967 (63.4) 352 (62.1) 40.3 0.203
Self-perceived risk of HIV Yes 960 (58.9) 393 (53.6) 45.2 954 (49.1) 431 (50.9) 47.5 0.286
No 649 (41.1) 328 (46.4) 56.1 1204 (50.9) 469 (49.1) 44.3 <0.001
HIV status Negative 1408 (85.0) 566 (81.1) 44.5 1911 (92.3) 768 (90.0) 44.9 0.818
Positive 227 (15.0) 129 (18.9) 59.6 171 (7.7) 98 (10.0) 58.3 0.795
Source of recruitment Outreach 142 (8.0) 43 (5.5) 38.8 363 (16.8) 184 (13.4) 48.2 0.056
Facility-based 1641 (92.0) 747 (94.5) 50.0 1801 (83.2) 720 (86.6) 45.4 0.007
  1. *P values are for comparison of prevalence between two rounds of surveys in 2010 and 2014
  2. **Type of substance: non-opioids = Shishe, hashish/grass/cannabis, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, and methamphetamine/crystal; opioids = opium, opium sap, opium syrup, heroin, norchizak, tamchizak, buprenorphine, methadone, and crack