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Table 1 Basic characteristics of prison inmates

From: Fifteen years of heroin-assisted treatment in a Swiss prison—a retrospective cohort study

  Total Non-HAT HATa Missing, N (%) pb pBonfc
N inmates (%) 1885 (100) 1788 (94.9) 97 (5.2) 0 (0) n.a. n.a.
Prison terms
N 1591 inmates: 1 term
228 inmates: 2 terms
52 inmates: 3 terms
10 inmates: 4 terms
3 inmates: 5 terms
1 inmate: 6 terms
Total: 2239 terms
1529 inmates: 1 term
204 inmates: 2 terms
43 inmates: 3 terms
8 inmates: 4 terms
3 inmates: 5 terms
1 inmates: 6 terms
Total: 2119 terms
62 inmates: 1 term
24 inmates: 2 terms
9 dinmates: 3 terms
2 inmates: 4 terms
Total: 120 terms
0 (0) n.a. n.a.
• Total length [months], median (IQR, min–max) 3.1 (5.39, 0.0–101.0) 3.0 (4.94, 0.0–101.0) 7.3 (10.71, 0.3–40.9) 0 (0) 0.000 n.a.
Sex, N (%), male 1885 (100) 1788 (100) 97 (100) 0 (0) n.a. n.a.
Age, mean (SD, min–max)d 33.8 (10.83, 17.0–85.0) 33.8 (11.01, 17.0–85.0) 34.9 (6.61, 22.0–52.0) 0 (0) 0.000 n.a.
Nationality, N (%), Swiss 583 (30.9) 517 (28.9) 66 (68.0) 349 (15.6) 0.000 n.a.
Index offense, N (%), with ≥ 1 offense     152 (6.8)   
• Drug 462 (24.5) 414 (23.2) 48 (49.5)   0.000 0.000
• Traffic, lighte 216 (11.5) 205 (11.5) 11 (11.3)   0.97 1.0
• Traffic, severef 100 (5.3) 99 (5.5) 1 (1.0)   0.05 0.9
• Arson 7 (0.4) 7 (0.4) 0 (0.0)   0.54 1.0
• Kidnapping 3 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 0 (0.0)   0.69 1.0
• Sex 41 (2.2) 40 (2.2) 1 (1.0)   0.43 1.0
• Homicide/manslaughter 21 (1.1) 1 (1.1) 1 (1.0)   0.94 1.0
• Property 747 (39.6) 685 (38.3) 62 (63.9)   0.000 0.000
 ° Fraud 122 (6.5) 115 (6.4) 7 (7.2)   0.76 1.0
 ° Theft 597 (31.7) 541 (30.3) 56 (57.7)   0.000 0.000
 ° Robbery/extortion 75 (4.0) 65 (3.6) 10 (10.3)   0.001 0.018
 ° Otherg 108 (5.7) 100 (5.6) 8 (8.2)   0.27 1.0
• Assault 173 (9.2) 162 (9.1) 11 (11.3)   0.45 1.0
• Weaponsh 24 (1.3) 21 (1.2) 3 (3.1)   0.10 1.0
• Obstruction of justicei 82 (4.4) 75 (4.2) 7 (7.2)   0.16 1.0
• Otherj 752 (39.9) 730 (40.8) 22 (22.7)   0.000 0.000
• Total violent crimesk 289 (15.3) 270 (15.1) 19 (19.6)   0.23 1.0
• Grand total 1674 (88.8l) 1586 (88.7l) 88 (90.7l)   0.54 1.0
  1. HAT heroin-assisted treatment, IQR interquartile range, min minimum, max maximum, N number, SD standard deviation
  2. aIncludes heroin with or without other substituents (46.4% persons with methadone and 4.1% with morphine or buprenorphine)
  3. bKruskal-Wallis test for period length, t test for age, Pearson’s chi-squared test for frequencies otherwise
  4. cBonferroni-corrected p value correction only applied to offense-related variables
  5. dAge is at the middle of an inmate’s imprisonment period. In the case of several stays, the mean is taken
  6. eIncludes driving without a license and violations of traffic and transportation laws
  7. fIncludes drunk driving and hit-and-run
  8. gIncludes handling stolen goods and computer fraud
  9. hIncludes any violation of weapons laws
  10. iIncludes violence or threats against public authorities or officials, contempt of official orders, prevention of an official action
  11. jIncludes property damage, violations of immigration laws, refusal to present personal identification, libel/slander, violations of animal protection laws, panhandling, and others
  12. kIncludes homicide, manslaughter, assault, sex offenses, robbery, and blackmail
  13. lThe numbers do not sum to 100% due to missing values