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Table 1 Baseline socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics of study participants (n = 74)

From: Retention and outcomes for clients attending a methadone clinic in a resource-constrained setting: a mixed methods prospective cohort study in Imphal, Northeast India

Participant characteristics Number Percent
Sex   
 Male 70 94.6
 Female 4 5.4
Age (in years)   
 18–30 31 41.9
 31–58 43 58.1
Marital status   
 Ever married 43 58.1
 Never married 31 41.9
Have children   
 No 34 46.0
 Yes 40 54.1
Can read and write   
 Yes 71 96.0
 No 3 4.1
Highest level of education   
 Never attended school 4 5.4
 Completed 5–11 years 34 46.0
 Completed class 12 19 25.7
 Completed college/university 17 23.0
Employed   
 No 32 43.2
 Yes, full-time 32 43.2
 Yes, part-time 10 13.5
Main source/s of income (multiple responses allowed)   
 Family/friends 60 81.1
 Employment 26 35.1
 Others (e.g. pension, house rent etc.) 10 13.5
Participation in family social events   
 Never 10 13.5
 Rarely 14 18.9
 Some of the time 22 29.7
 Always 28 37.8
Quality of family relationships   
 Good 2 2.7
 Fair 19 25.7
 Poor 53 71.6
Physical health at baseline (self-perceived)   
 Fair, good or very good 19 25.7
 Poor 55 74.3
Drugs used in the last 12 months (multiple responses allowed)   
 Heroin 72 97.3
 Benzodiazepines 53 71.6
 ATS—amphetamine-type-stimulants 38 51.4
 Cannabis/ganja 34 46.0
 Spasmoproxyvona 29 39.2
 Cough syrup 12 16.2
 Raw opium 4 5.4
 Brown sugar 2 2.7
 Antihistamines 1 1.4
 Others 4 5.4
Drug injected the most in last 12 months   
 Heroin 72 98.6
 Other 1 1.4
Frequency of use of most injected drug (past 4 weeks)   
 Once a day or less 4 5.4
 2–3 times a day 21 28.4
 More than 3 times a day 48 64.9
Needle sharing (past 4 weeks)   
 Yes 37 50.0
 No 37 50.0
Ever been arrested by police   
 Yes 60 81.1
 No 14 18.9
Number of times arrested by police (if arrested)   
 Once 17 23.0
 More than once 43 58.1
Ever been in prison   
 Yes 9 12.2
 No 65 87.8
Property crime (past 4 weeks)   
 No 32 43.2
 Yes 42 56.8
Alcohol use (past 4 weeks)   
 Never consumed alcohol 41 56.2
 Not in the past month 5 6.9
 Less than once a week 16 21.9
 At least once a week 9 12.3
 Every day 2 2.7
Depression symptomsb   
 No (PHQ-9: < 10) 19 25.7
 Yes (PHQ-9: ≥ 10) 55 74.3
Anxiety symptomsc   
 No (GAD-2 < 3) 44 59.5
 Yes (GAD-2 ≥ 3) 30 40.5
Suicidal thoughts (past 12 months)   
 No 19 25.7
 Yes 55 74.3
Suicide attempt (past 12 months)   
 No 55 76.4
 Yes 17 23.6
Current suicidal ideation (past 2 weeks)d   
 No 30 40.5
 Yes 44 59.5
Ever had an HIV test   
 No 7 9.5
 Yes 67 90.5
Ever been tested for HCV   
 Yes 51 68.9
 No 23 31.1
  1. aA synthetic opioid analgesic containing dextropropoxyphene
  2. bPatient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores of ≥ 10 represent the optimum cut-off when screening for depression
  3. cGeneralised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2) score of ≥ 3 represents the optimum cut-off when screening for anxiety
  4. dAssessed using Item 9 of the PHQ-9