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Table 6 Impact of OST participation on social and behavioral outcomes among those retained at T1, T2 and T3 (excluding drop-outs)

From: Retention and outcomes for clients attending a methadone clinic in a resource-constrained setting: a mixed methods prospective cohort study in Imphal, Northeast India

  Baseline (T0) (n = 74) 6 weeks (T1) (n = 71) 6 months (T2) (n = 52) 12 months (T3) (n = 50) P valuea T0–T1 T0–T2 T0–T3
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Effect sizeb P valuec Effect sizeb P valuec Effect sizeb P valuec
Injecting drug use (past 4 weeks) 73 (98.7) 6 (8.1) 7 (9.5) 3 (4.1) 0.000 2.336 0.000 2.286 0.000 2.505 1.000
Shared needle for injection (past 4 weeks) 37 (50) 1 (1.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.000 1.334 0.000 1.571 0.000 1.571 0.000
Property crime (past 4 weeks) 42 (56.8) 1 (1.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.000 1.470 0.000 1.707 0.000 1.707 0.000
Anxiety symptoms (GAD-2: ≥ 3)d 30 (40.5) 2 (2.82) 1 (1.9) 2 (4) 0.000 1.042 0.000 1.103 0.000 0.977 0.000
Depression symptoms (PHQ-9: ≥ 10)e 55 (74.3) 2 (2.8) 5 (9.6) 0 (0) 0.000 1.742 0.000 1.448 0.000 2.078 0.000
Current suicidal ideation (PHQ-9: item 9)f 44 (59.5) 10 (14.1) 7 (13.5) 9 (18) 0.000 0.992 0.000 1.009 0.000 0.886 0.000
Poor physical health (self-perceived) 55 (74.3) 3 (4.1) 2 (3.2) 1 (1.8) 0.000 1.671 0.000 1.719 1.000 1.809 0.000
Poor family relationships 53 (71.6) 1 (1.8) 7 (11.3) 3 (5.3) 0.000 1.748 0.000 1.332 1.000 1.553 0.000
Very hopeful for future 9 (12.2) 16 (22.5) 28 (53.9) 31 (62) 0.000 − 0.275 0.189 − 0.935 0.000 − 1.100 0.000
Employment (employed) 42 (56.8) 36 (52.2) 33 (67.4) 40 (80) 0.010 0.092 0.607 − 0.219 0.648 − 0.507 0.019
Participation in family events 50 (67.6) 50 (70.4) 44 (84.6) 44 (88) 0.019 − 0.061 0.845 − 0.405 0.210 − 0.504 0.039
  1. aCochran chi square test for equality of proportions
  2. bEffect size was based on Cohen’s h
  3. cMcNemar’s test for the difference between two proportions
  4. dGeneralised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2) score of ≥ 3 represents the optimum cut-off when screening for anxiety
  5. ePatient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores of ≥ 10 represent the optimum cut-off when screening depression symptoms
  6. fAssessed using Item 9 of the PHQ-9