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Table 1 Comparison of self-excluders and non-self-excluders (including all individuals with valid answer for the self-exclusion item, N = 1940)

From: Who chooses to enroll in a new national gambling self-exclusion system? A general population survey in Sweden

  Self-excluded (n = 84) Not self-excluded (n = 1856) p value Missing
Male sex 58% (49) 49% (908) 0.09 2
Age    < 0.001* 0
 16–19 14% (12) 2% (45)   
 20–24 17% (14) 5% (95)   
 25–29 17% (14) 9% (169)   
 30–39 25% (21) 18% (331)   
 40–49 17% (14) 25% (466)   
 50 and above 11% (9) 40% (750)   
Post-high-school education 43% (36) 57% (1049) 0.01 0
Income 11% (9) 9% (171) 0.26* 0
 Under 10,000     
 10,000–15,000- 14% (12) 9% (169)   
 15,000–20,000 7% (6) 9% (172)   
 20,000–25,000 8% (7) 10% (191)   
 25,000–30,000 20% (17) 16% (289)   
 30,000–35,000 15% (13) 16% (294)   
 35,000–40,000 7% (6) 12% (220)   
 40,000–45,000 6% (5) 7% (125)   
 45,000–50,000 1% (1) 3% (64)   
 50,000 and above 10% (8) 9% (161)   
Past-year over-indebtedness 20% (17) 4% (80) < 0.001 9
Need for psychological distress treatment 54% (45) 36% (662) < 0.001 25
Severe psychological distress 24% (20) 9% (161) < 0.001 10
Need for treatment for alcohol problems 15% (12) 4% (68) < 0.001 8
Need for treatment for drug problems 12% (10) 2% (30) < 0.001 8
Tobacco smoking 26% (21) 16% (294) 0.02 7
Gambling risk    < 0.001* 55
 None 76% (47) 90% (1645)   
 Low 3% (2) 5% (90)   
 Moderate risk 6% (4) 2% (42)   
 Problem gambling 15% (9) 3% (46)   
Past-year gambling activities     
Online casino 28% (23) 7% (136) < 0.001 11
Physical casino 15% (12) 3% (63) < 0.001 12
Online horse betting 19% (15) 14% (256) 0.24 13
Physical horse betting 16% (13) 11% (202) 0.13 17
Online sports betting 21% (16) 17% (310) 0.39 14
Physical sports betting 17% (14) 12% (217) 0.13 11
Online poker 13% (10) 3% (59) < 0.001 10
Physical poker 7% (6) 3% (59) 0.04 10
Physical gambling machines 17% (14) 5% (88) < 0.001 7
Online bingo 13% (10) 5% (90) < 0.01 11
  1. Chi-square analyses
  2. *Chi-square, linear-by-linear