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Table 3 Problem gamblers (n = 101)

From: Who chooses to enroll in a new national gambling self-exclusion system? A general population survey in Sweden

  Self-excluded (n = 13) Not self-excluded (n = 88) p value Missing
Male sex 77% (10) 60% (53) 0.25 0
Age    0.05*/** 0
 16–19 8% (1) 7% (6)   
 20–24 38% (5) 14% (12)   
 25–29 15% (2) 15% (13)   
 30–39 23% (3) 28% (25)   
 40–49 15% (2) 26% (23)   
 50 and above 0% (0) 10% (9)   
Post-high-school education 54% (7) 44% (39) 0.52 0
Income    0.53** 0
 Under 10,000 8% (1) 14% (12)   
 10,000–15,000 23% (3) 13% (11)   
 15,000–20,000 15% (2) 9% (8)   
 20,000–25,000 8% (1) 14% (12)   
 25,000–30,000 31% (4) 14% (12)   
 30,000–35,000 8% (1) 18% (16)   
 35,000–40,000 0% (0) 10% (9)   
 40,000–45,000 0% (0) 3% (3)   
 45,000–50,000 0% (0) 1% (1)   
 50,000 and above 8% (1) 5% (4)   
Over-indebtedness 23% (3) 14% (12) 0.41*** 3
Need for psychological distress treatment 62% (8) 38% (33) 0.11 2
Severe psychological distress 46% (6) 18% (16) 0.02 1
Need for treatment for alcohol problems 23% (3) 13% (11) 0.39*** 3
Need for treatment for drug problems 23% (3) 14% (12) 0.41*** 1
Daily tobacco smoking 42% (5) 29% (25) 0.36 2
Past-year gambling activities     
Online casino 42% (5) 38% (32) 0.79 4
Physical casino 23% (3) 14% (12) 0.41*** 2
Online horse betting 23% (3) 26% (22) 1.00*** 3
Physical horse betting 15% (2) 20% (17) 1.00*** 5
Online sports betting 36% (4) 43% (37) 0.76*** 4
Physical sports betting 17% (2) 26% (22) 0.72*** 3
Online poker 15% (2) 18% (15) 1.00*** 3
Physical poker 8% (1) 12% (10) 1.00*** 2
Physical gambling machines 23% (3) 20% (17) 0.72*** 1
Online bingo 15% (2) 30% (26) 0.34*** 1
Problem gambling (PGSI > 7) 69% (9) 52% (46) 0.37*** 0
  1. Comparison of self-excluders and non-self-excluders. Chi-square analyses
  2. * < 0.05, rounded off to 0.05
  3. **Chi-square, linear-by-linear
  4. ***Fisher’s exact test