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Table 4 Non-problem gamblers (n = 1784)

From: Who chooses to enroll in a new national gambling self-exclusion system? A general population survey in Sweden

  Self-excluded (n = 49) Not self-excluded (n = 1735) p value Missing
Male sex 43% (21) 48% (828) 0.50 2
Age     < 0.001* 0
 16–19 10% (5) 2% (35)   
 20–24 6% (3) 4% (75)   
 25–29 16% (8) 9% (152)   
 30–39 27% (13) 17% (302)   
 40–49 22% (11) 25% (434)   
 50 and above 18% (9) 42% (737)   
Post-high-school education 49% (24) 57% (993) 0.25 0
Income    0.56* 0
 Under 10,000 10% (5) 9% (157)   
 10,000–15,000- 12% (6) 9% (153)   
 15,000–20,000 8% (4) 9% (159)   
 20,000–25,000 10% (5) 10% (177)   
 25,000–30,000 16% (8) 16% (272)   
 30,000–35,000 12% (6) 16% (273)   
 35,000–40,000 12% (6) 12% (208)   
 40,000–45,000 8% (4) 7% (120)   
 45,000–50,000 2% (1) 4% (63)   
 50,000 and above 8% (4) 9% (153)   
Over-indebtedness 12% (6) 3% (57)  < 0.001 5
Need for psychological distress 43% (21) 36% (615) 0.31 20
Severe psychological distress 10% (5) 8% (133) 0.52 8
Need for treatment for alcohol problems 4% (2) 3% (49) 0.65** 2
Need for treatment for drug problems 4% (2) 1% (13) 0.06** 2
Daily tobacco smoking 16% (8) 15% (260) 0.80 3
Past-year gambling activities     
Online casino 8% (4) 5% (90) 0.32** 4
Physical casino 2% (1) 2% (40) 1.00** 4
Online horse betting 6% (3) 13% (221) 0.27** 5
Physical horse betting 4% (2) 10% (178) 0.22** 4
Online sports betting 6% (3) 15% (259) 0.10** 4
Physical sports betting 2% (1) 11% (187) 0.05**/*** 4
Online poker 0% (0) 2% (33) 1.00** 2
Physical poker 2% (1) 2% (43) 1.00** 3
Physical gambling machines 2% (1) 4% (64) 1.00** 2
Online bingo 8% (4) 3% (52) 0.06** 4
  1. Comparison of self-excluders and non-self-excluders. Chi-square analyses
  2. *Chi-square, linear-by-linear
  3. **Fisher’s exact test
  4. ***Above cut-off 0.05