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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies on HBV prevalence among people who use drugs in Iran

From: Hepatitis B virus infection among people who use drugs in Iran: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and trend analysis

No Author, year Year of study
implementation
Province(s) Recruitment setting Sampling method Sample size
(male, female)
Target population Definition of PWID Response rate (%) Unfulfilled quality criteria
1 Asadollahi, 2019 [47] 2017 Khuzestan One DTC UK 131 (UK) PWID UK UK 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
2 Gheibipour, 2019 [48] 2016 Kermanshah Two DICs and high-risk areas Snowball sampling 606 (606,0) PWID UK UK 2, 3, 5
3 Moradi, 2019 [49] 2016 National (10 provinces) 29 prisons Random multistage sampling 4614 (UK) PWID, non-injecting PWUD Lifetime 98.1 4
4 Moradi, 2018 [50] 2015 National (9 provinces) 26 prisons Random multistage sampling 4078 (UK) PWID, non-injecting PWUD Lifetime 88.8 4
5 Ziaee, 2016 [51] 2013–2014 South Khorasan Household UK 148 (UK) PWID; non-injecting PWUD Lifetime UK 2, 3, 4, 5
6 Kandelouei, 2013 [52] 2013 Tehran Three DICs in different areas with high rates of high-risk behaviours UK 129 (128, 1) PWID Current UK 2, 3
7 Moezzi, 2014 [53] 2013 Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Household Cluster sampling 29 (UK) PWID UK UK 3, 4, 5
8 Nokhodian, 2014 [54] 2012 Isfahan Two prisons Census 970 (970,0) PWID Lifetime UK 2, 3
9 Ramezani, 2014 [55] 2012 Markazi An MMT centre UK 100 (100,0) PWID Last 3 months UK 2, 3
10 Mohammadkhani-Ghiasvand, 2016 [56) 2010–2011 Tehran An MMT centre Census 220 (UK) PWID; non-injecting PWUD UK UK 3, 4, 5, 6
11 Alipour, 2013 [57] 2010 Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Fars Four DICs Convenient 42 (0, 42) PWID Lifetime UK 2, 3
12 Alipour, 2013 [57] 2010 Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Fars Four DICs Convenient 226 (226,0) PWID Last 12 months UK 2, 3
13 Momen-Heravi, 2013 [58] 2010 Isfahan Several MMT clinics, one DIC, an HCT centre Convenient 300 (288, 12) PWID UK UK 2, 3, 5
14 Teimori, 2011 [59] 2010 Kermanshah One DTC Census 76 (0, 76) PWID; non-injecting PWUD Usual route UK 3
15 Khosravani, 2012 [60] 2009–2010 Kohkiloyeh & Boyerahmad Two DTCs, one prison, 4 wards from two hospitals UK 158 (157, 1) PWID Lifetime UK 1, 2, 3, 4
16 Ziaee, 2014 [61] 2009–2010 South Khorasan Three prisons Stratified random 59 (UK) PWID UK UK 2, 3, 4, 5
17 Khodadoostan, 2014 [62] 2009 Isfahan NR Announcement-based 1588 (UK) PWID Lifetime NA 2, 4, 7
18 Nokhodian, 2012 [63] 2009 Isfahan Central prison Census 49 (0, 49) PWID, non-injecting PWUD Lifetime 100 None
19 Sofian, 2012 [64] 2009 Markazi Prisons and mandatory residential centre for drug addiction Census 153 (153,0) PWID Last 3 months 100 None
20 Khajedaluee, 2016 [65] 2008 Khorasan Razavi Two prisons Stratified random 606 (UK) PWID, non-injecting PWUD UK UK 3, 4, 5
21 Zamani, 2010 [66] 2008 Isfahan One DIC, at parks and streets Respondent driven 117 (114, 3) PWID Last month 99.2 2, 4
22 Radfar, 2008 [67] 2007 Isfahan A residential short-term rehabilitation centre Convenient 40 (40,0) PWID UK UK 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
23 Rahimi-Movaghar, 2010 [68] 2006–2007 Tehran Three DTCs, 2 DICs, public places in 5 high-risk areas Consecutive and purposive sampling using ethnographic observations, peer referral, snowball sampling 864 (827, 37) PWID Last 2 months 99.4 (for blood samples) 2, 3
24 SeyedAlinaghi, 2010 [69] 2006 Tehran A mandatory rehabilitation centre Census 452 (452,0) PWID Urine test and injection marks 90.6 None
25 Mardani, 2009 [70) 2004–2005 Ghom One prison UK 808 (UK) PWID; non-injecting PWUD UK UK 2, 3, 4, 5
26 Talaei, 2007 [71] 2004–2005 Tehran One poisoning hospital Census 126 (UK) non-injecting PWUD Lifetime UK 3, 4
27 Taghizadeh Asl, 2013 [72] 2003–2005 Alborz Triangular clinic in a prison Convenient 132 (132,0) PWID UK 88 2, 5, 6
28 Azarkar, 2007 [73) 2004 South Khorasan One prison Stratified random 140 (UK) non-injecting PWUD UK UK 3, 4, 5
29 Imani, 2008 [74] 2004 Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari One DTC Convenient 133 (131, 2) PWID UK UK 2, 3, 5
30 Khodadadizadeh, 2006 [75] 2003 Kerman One DTC Convenient 180 (172, 8) PWID; non-injecting PWUD UK UK 2, 3, 4, 5
31 Pourahmad, 2007 [76] 2003 Isfahan, Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari, Lorestan Four prisons UK 401 (401,0) PWID UK UK 2, 3, 5
32 Davoodian, 2009 [77] 2002 Hormozgan Two prisons Random 252 (252,0) PWID UK UK 3, 4, 5
33 Tavakkoli, 2008 [78] 2001–2002 Tehran Two prisons and 3 DTCs Prisons: Random
DTCs: Consecutive
518 (464, 54) PWID Regular injection for at least one year 98.5 2
34 Rowhani-Rahbar, 2004 [79] 2001 Khorasan Razavi One prison Convenient 101 (101,0) PWID Injection scars and identified as PWID by health personnel 92.7 2
35 Masaud, 1996 [80] 1990–1991 Tehran Two prisons UK 88 (48, 40) PWID Lifetime UK 1, 2, 3, 7
  1. Numerals of unfulfilled criteria; (1) Source of sampling was not well-presented or not representative of the target population; (2) The method of sampling was not appropriate; (3) The response rate was not provided or was under 70% or the non-responders were different from respondents in the main demographic characteristics; (4) Subgroup analyses were not performed for gender; (5) The study subjects (definition of injecting and non-injecting drug use) and the setting were not described in detail; (6) The condition was not measured by a valid method; (7) The year of the study was not stated; (8) The sample size was not adequate
  2. UK unknown, PWID people who inject drugs; Non-injecting PWUD non-injecting people who use drugs, DTC drug treatment centre, DIC drop-in centre