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Table 2 Findings of studies on HBV prevalence among people who inject drugs in Iran

From: Hepatitis B virus infection among people who use drugs in Iran: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and trend analysis

No Author, Year Recruitment setting Age characteristics History of ever sharing needle equipment (%) History of other high-risk injection (%) History of incarceration (%) History of a high-risk sexual relationship (%) Tattooing/ Cupping (%) Sample size (Male, Female) HBsAg positive cases (%) Other tests (%)
Total Male Female
1 Asadollahi, 2019 [47] DTC Mean (SD): 48.2 (10.4)
Range: 29–71
131 (UK) 8a (6.1)
2 Gheibipour, 2019 [48] DIC Mean (SD): 36.7 (8.5)
Range:18–65
77.6 Tattoo: 62.1 606 (606,0) 18 (2.9) 18 (2.9)
3 Moradi, 2019 [49] Incarcerated 36.0 NA 697 (UK) 19 (2.7)
4 Moradi, 2018 [50] Incarcerated 29.3 NA 678 (UK) 17 (2.5)
5 Ziaee, 2016 [51] Community 9 (UK) 0 (0)
6 Kandelouei, 2013 [52] DIC 30–40 years: 34.6% 25.0 68.3 Tattoo:38.8 129 (128, 1) 4 (3.1) 4 (3.1) 0 (0)
7 Moezzi, 2014 [53) Community  > 15 29 (UK) 2 (6.8)
8 Nokhodian, 2014 [54] Incarcerated Mean (SD): 32.6 (8.1) Injection in prison: 40.3 NA MSM:43.1 970 (970,0) 32 (3.3) 32 (3.3) HBcAb: 127 (13.0); Isolated HBsAg: 120 (12.3)
9 Ramezani, 2014 [55] DTC Range: 17–58 54.0 Unsafe injection in prison:25.0; First injection i N < 18: 24.0 73.0 MSM: 9.0; With PWID: 14.0 Tattoo: 78.0 100 (100,0) 6 (6) 6 (6) HCV: 6 (6); HCV-HIV: 5 (5)
10 Mohammadkhani-Ghiasvand, 2016 [56] DTC 34 (UK) 6 (17.6)
11 Alipour, 2013 [57] DIC Mean (SD): 33.0 (1.0) 55.0 42 (0, 42) 3 (7.3) 3 (7.3)
12 Alipour, 2013 [57] DIC Mean (SD): 37.0 (1.1) 39.1 226(226,0) 8 (3.6) 8 (3.6)
13 Momen-Heravi, 2013 [58] Mixed Mean (SD): 34.9 (9.7) 11.0 76.7 MSM: 20.7; Extramarital: 20.3 Tattoo: 41.0; Cupping: 24.7 300 (288, 12) 2 (0.7) 2 (0.66) 0 (0)
14 Teimori, 2011 [59] DTC Mean: 35.2
Range: 20–54
10 (0,10) 0 (0) 0 (0)
15 Khosravani, 2012 [60] Mixed 158 (157, 1) 5 (3.2)b 5 (3.2)b 0 (0)b
16 Ziaee, 2014 [61] Incarcerated NA 59 (UK) 5 (8.9)
17 Khodadoostan, 2014 [62] Community 1588 (UK) 67 (4.2)
18 Nokhodian, 2012 [63] Incarcerated NA 5 (0, 5) 0 (0) 0 (0) HBcAb: 2 (40); HBsAb: 2 (40)
19 Sofian, 2012 [64] Incarcerated Mean (SD): 30.7 (5.9) NA 153 (153,0) 11 (7.2) 11 (7.2) HCV: 9(5.9)
HIV: 13(2.0)
HCV-HIV: 2(1.3)
20 Khajedaluee, 2016 [65] Incarcerated NA 111 (UK) 6 (5.4)
21 Zamani, 2010 [66] Community Mean (SD): 29.0 (6.6) 31.2 71.2 MSM: 11.3 Exchanged for money or drug: 24.9 Tattoo:55.8 117 (114, 3) 2; Estimated RDS measure: 0.7
22 Radfar, 2008 [67] DTC Mean (SD): 28.8 (6.2) 40 (40,0) 3 (7.5) 3 (7.5)  
23 Rahimi-Movaghar, 2010 [68] Mixed Mean (SD): 33.9 (9.4) 76.6 Unsafe injection in prison: 15.2; Any sharing in the L6M: 63.9 70.9 Extramarital without protection in the L6M: 36.4 864 (827, 37) 213 (24.7) 385 (46.5)b 13 (35.1)b HCV: 181(21.0)
HIV: 67(7.8)
HCV-HIV: 56(6.5)
24 SeyedAlinaghi, 2010 [69] Incarcerated 25–34 years: 51.7% 27.2 Unsafe injection in prison: 6.2 74.3 MSM: 5.0; With sex worker: 23.3 Tattoo: 27.7 452 (452,0) 26 (5.8) 26 (5.8)
25 Mardani, 2009 [70] Incarcerated NA 644 (UK) 30 (4.7)
26 Taghizadeh Asl, 2013 [72] Incarcerated Mean (SD): 31.4 (8.2) NA 132 (132,0) 25 (18.9) 25 (18.9)  
27 Imani, 2008 [74] DTC Mean (SD): 31.3 (7.1) 19.6 35.3 133 (131, 2) 8 (6.0) 8 (6.1) 0 (0)
28 Khodadadizadeh, 2006 [75] DTC 31 (31, 0) 3 (9.7) 3 (9.7)
29 Pourahmad, 2007 [76] Incarcerated 58.5 NA 401 (401,0) 17 (4.0) 17 (4.0)
30 Davoodian, 2009 [77] Incarcerated Mean (SD): 35.4 (8.4) NA 252 (252,0) 12 (4.8) 12 (4.8) HCV: 7(2.8)
HIV: 3(1.2);
HCV-HIV: 3(1.2)
31 Tavakkoli, 2008 [78] Mixed 30–44 years: 61.4% 62.0 74.5 Homo/bi-sexual: 27.3 Tattoo: 52.5 518 (464, 54) 19 (3.7) 17 (3.7) 2 (3.7) HBcAb: 317 (61.1); HbeAg: 12 (2.3)
32 Rowhani-Rahbar, 2004 [79] Incarcerated Mean: 32.8 48.5 NA Multiple partners: 40.6 Tattoo: 57.4 101 (101,0) 3 (2.9) 3 (2.9)
33 Masaud, 1996 [80] Incarcerated Mean: 34.0 NA 88 (48, 40) 5 (5.7) 5 (10.4) 0 (0) HBeAg: 0 (0); HBeAb: 25 (28.5)
  1. UK unknown, NA not applicable, MSM men having sex with men, L6M last 6 months, DTC drug treatment centre, DIC drop-in centre
  2. aHBV positive
  3. bHBsAg and HBcAb positive cases