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Table 4 HBV pooled prevalence across subgroups of PWID

From: Hepatitis B virus infection among people who use drugs in Iran: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and trend analysis

Subgroup PWID (N) Studies (N) Pooled HBV prevalence % (%95 CI) I2 (%)
Recruitment setting     
Treatment centre 479 7 7.1 (5.1–9.7) 0
Prisons 4740 14 4.7 (3.4–6.4) 79.0
Community 1743 4 4.5 (1.8–10.2) 37.4
Mixed settings 1840 4 4.3 (1.0–14.6) 96.6
Drop-in centres 1003 4 3.3 (2.3–4.6) 0
Definition of PWID     
Lifetime 4193 8 3.4 (2.7–4.1) 16.6
Current 2670 10 4.9 (2.8–8.3) 89.2
Unknown 2942 15 5.7 (3.9–8.3) 78.6
Gender     
Male 5621 20 5.1 (3.3–7.7) 92.9
Female 199 9 2.9 (0.04–17.2) 77.5
Age     
Older 864 3 5.5 (4.1–7.4) 9.6
Youtha 206 3 1.4 (0.04–4.4) 0
Marital status     
Marriedb 950 5 4.1 (0.08–18.0) 96.2
Never married 1422 5 3.9 (0.06–19.5) 97.0
Employment status     
Employed 650 3 9.6 (1.3–44.4) 96.3
Unemployed 619 3 6.7 (0.05–49.7) 89.9
Current residence     
Not homeless 969 2 14.6 (1.6–63.7) 98.6
Homeless 492 2 12.7 (1.2–63.0) 95.7
Lifetime history of imprisonment     
No 610 6 1.8 (0.02–12.3) 91.1
Yesc 6269 20 5.2 (3.3–7.9) 92.3
Lifetime sharing needle and syringe     
No 1718 7 2.9 (0.08–9.3) 95.1
Yes 1540 7 7.0 (2.4–18.3) 95.1
Lifetime sharing needle and syringe in prison     
No 810 2 9.8 (0.5–70.2) 89.6
Yes 154 2 37.2 (17.1–63.1) 75.6
Ever MSM     
No 601 3 2.1 (0.07–5.9) 67.5
Yes 173 3 1.1 (0.01–7.3) 42.5
Extramarital relationship     
No 848 2 5.5 (0.01–76.0) 93.8
Yesd 316 2 10.8 (0.06–68.7) 88.2
Ever tattoo     
No 502 4 1.7 (0.09–3.4) 0
Yes 624 4 2.9 (1.1–7.5) 66.2
Coinfection     
HCV, HIV 1362 4 2.9 (1.2–6.5) 73.5
HCV 1362 4 7.0 (3.1–15.3) 89.5
HIV 1266 3 4.7 (1.8–11.6) 88.5
  1. aTwo studies defined youth under 25 years old and the other one under 30 years old
  2. bThree studies only married, two studies married, divorced or widowed
  3. cIncluding those studies recruiting samples from prisons
  4. dOne study defined as an extramarital relationship without protection in the last 6 months; the other defined as an ever extramarital relationship