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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the analysis, and gender and age-adjusted expected smoking prevalence based on population smoking rates

From: Smoking prevalence among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and its association with disease severity and mortality: an expanded re-analysis of a recent publication

  Hospitalized cases Age Males Females Hospitalized smokers Hospitalized smokers prevalence Expected number of smokers (gender and age-adjusted) Expected smokers gender and age-adjusted
  N Median (IQR)
Mean (SD)
% % n % (95%CI) n %
Chen et al. [22] 145 48 (15) 54.5 45.5 15 10.3 (5.9–16.5) 37 25.8
Feng et al. [23] 454 53 (60–64) 56.9 43.1 44 9.7 (7.1–12.8) 122 26.8
Guan et al. [24] 1085 47 (35–58) 58.1 41.9 137 12.6 (10.6–14.6) 296 27.3
Hu et al. [25] 323 61 (23–91) 51.4 48.6 38 11.8 (8.5–15.8) 79 24.6
Huang et al. [26] 41 49 (41–58) 73.2 26.8 3 7.3 (0.0–15.3) 14 33.3
Ji et al. [27] 208 44 (16) 56.3 43.8 19 9.2 (5.6–13.9) 55 26.5
Li et al. [28] 544 60 (48–69) 51.3 48.7 41 7.5 (5.4–10.1) 134 24.6
Li et al. [29] 25 51 48.0 52.0 7 28.0 (12.1–49.4) 6 23.3
Liu et al. [30] 40 49 (14) 37.5 62.5 5 12.5 (4.2–26.8) 8 19.1
Liu et al. [31] 78 38 (33–57) 50.0 50.0 5 6.4 (0.1–11.8) 19 24.1
Mo et al. [32] 155 54 (42–66) 55.5 44.5 6 3.9 (0.9–6.9) 41 26.2
Qin et al. [33] 452 58 (47–67) 52.0 48.0 7 1.6 (0.6–3.2) 112 24.8
Shi et al. [34] 474 46 (19) 53.2 46.8 40 8.4 (6.1–11.3) 120 25.3
Wan et al. [35] 135 47 (36–55) 53.3 46.7 9 6.7 (2.5–10.9) 34 25.4
Wang et al. [36] 125 39 (14) 56.8 43.2 16 12.8 (7.5–20.0) 33 26.8
Zhang et al. [37] 140 57 (25–87) 50.7 49.3 2 1.4 (0.0–3.3) 34 24.3
Chen et al. [38] 274 62 (44–70) 62.4 37.6 12 5.4 (2.4–8.3) 79 29.0
Wang et al. [39] (1) 340 47 (15)
55 (17)
48.2 51.8 16 4.7 (2.7–7.5) 79 23.3
Yang et al. [40] 52 52 (13) 67.3 32.7 2 3.8 (0.5–13.2) 16 31.0
Zhou et al. [41] 191 56 (46–67) 62.3 37.7 11 5.8 (2.5–9.1) 55 29.0
Chow et al. [42] (2) 1494     27 1.8 (1.2–2.6) 131 8.8
Goyal et al. [43] 393 62 (49–74) 60.6 39.4 20 5.1 (3.1–7.8) 36 9.2
Total 7168     482 7.0 (5.1–9.3) 1542 24.1 (20.1–28.3)
  1. (1) Age was reported separately for the two groups of patients
  2. (2) No data on age and gender were available. The expected smoking prevalence was not adjusted for gender