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Table 1 Contrasting the odds of self-reported health outcomes between current e-cigarette users and current smokers in cross-sectional studies

From: How effective are electronic cigarettes for reducing respiratory and cardiovascular risk in smokers? A systematic review

Study information Study results
References Data source and study design Analytic sample Outcome Covariates Statistical modeling approach* aOR (95% CI)
Respiratory       
Hedman et al. [33] OLIN and WSAS
(2016)
Cross-sectional
Age range: 20–75 years
Total sample: n = 30,272
Exclusive vapers who were former smokers: n = 79
Respiratory symptoms Sociodemographics
OLIN or WSAS survey respondent
Composite smoking and vaping variable 0.58 (0.36–0.94)
Li et al. [34] PATH W2
(2015)
Cross-sectional
Age range: ≥ 18 years
Total sample: n = 28,171
Exclusive vapers who were former smokers: n = 471
Wheezing Sociodemographics
Weight status
Secondhand smoke
Asthma
Perceived health
Composite smoking and vaping variable 0.66
(0.50–0.87)
Bhatta and Glantz [35] PATH W1–W3
(2014–2016)
Longitudinal
Age range: ≥ 18 years
Total sample: n = 19,475
All vapers: n = 2059 (1.4%)§
COPD, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or asthma Sociodemographics
Weight status
High blood pressure
High cholesterol
Diabetes mellitus
Separate smoking and vaping variables 0.58
(0.37–0.93)
Cardiovascular       
Alzahrani et al
(2018) [36]
NHIS
(Pooled 2014 and 2016)
Cross-sectional
Age range: ≥ 18 years
Total sample: n = 69,905
All everyday vapers: n = 776 (5.3%)§
All someday vapers: n = 1483 (9.2%)§
History of
MI
Sociodemographics
Weight status
High blood pressure
High cholesterol
Diabetes mellitus
Separate smoking and vaping variables 1.12 (0.72–1.76)||
0.83 (0.53–1.31)
Farsalinos et al. [37] NHIS
(Pooled 2016 and 2017)
Cross-sectional
Age range: ≥ 18 years
Total sample: n = 59,770
All everyday vapers: n = 714 (9.1%)§
All someday vapers: n = 1009 (17.9%)§
[A] History of MI
[B] History
of CHD
Sociodemographics
Weight status
High blood pressure
High cholesterol
Diabetes mellitus
Separate smoking and vaping variables [A] 1.22 (0.70–2.10)||
[A] 1.39 (0.76–2.54)
[B] 1.48 (0.83–2.64)||
[B] 1.26(0.70–2.30)
Parekh et al. [38] BRFSS
(Pooled 2016 and 2017)
Cross-sectional
Age range: 18–44 years
Total sample: n = 161,529
Exclusive vapers who were former smokers: n = 13,318
History of stroke Sociodemographics
Weight status
Physical activity
Binge drinking
Diabetes mellitus
Composite smoking and vaping variable 1.60
(0.69–3.71)
  1. aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CHD coronary heart disease, MI myocardial infarction, BRFSS Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, NHIS National Health Interview Survey, OLIN Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Study, WSAS West Sweden Asthma Study, PATH Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, W1 Wave 1, W2 Wave 2, W3 Wave 3
  2. *For composite smoking and vaping variable, exclusive vapers only include former smokers
  3. Exclusive smokers only include never vapers
  4. Exclusive smokers may include never or former vapers
  5. §Weighted percent of current vapers who are never smokers
  6. ||Everyday vapers vs. everyday smokers
  7. Someday vapers vs. someday smokers
\