Skip to main content

Table 2 Appraisal of reviewed studies using the AXIS tool

From: How effective are electronic cigarettes for reducing respiratory and cardiovascular risk in smokers? A systematic review

  Hedman et al. [33] Li et al. [34] Bhatta and Glantz [35] Alzahrani et al. [37] Farsalinos et al. [37] Parekh et al. [38]
Were the aims/objectives of the study clear? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Was the study design appropriate for the stated aim(s)? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Was the sample size justified? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Was the target/reference population clearly defined? (Is it clear who the research was about?) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Was the sample frame taken from an appropriate population base so that it closely represented the target/reference population under investigation? Don't know Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Was the selection process likely to select subjects/participants that were representative of the target/reference population under investigation? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were measures undertaken to address and categorize non-responders? Yes Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know
Were the risk factor and outcome variables measured appropriate to the aims of the study? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were the risk factor and outcome variables measured correctly using instruments/measurements that have been trialed, piloted, or published previously? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Is it clear what was used to determine statistical significance and/or precision estimates? (e.g., p values, Cis) Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Were the methods (including statistical methods) sufficiently described to enable them to be repeated? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were the basic data adequately described? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Does the response rate raise concerns about non-response bias?* Yes Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know
If appropriate, was information about non-responders described? Yes Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know
Were the results internally consistent? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were the results for the analyses described in the methods presented? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were the authors discussions and conclusions justified by the results? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were the limitations of the study discussed? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were there any funding sources or conflicts of interest that may affect the authors' interpretation of the results?* Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know No
Was ethnical approval or consent of participants attained? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Overall 17 16 16 15 16 17
\