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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies and the main results

From: Harm reduction program and hepatitis C prevalence in people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran: an updated systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis

First author and reference Study date Study location (city) Total sample size Study design Study sampling procedure Recruitment setting HCV Ab prevalence
Alam-Mehrjerdi et al. [100] 2012 Tehran 53 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 43% (30–56%)
Alavi et al. [98] 2002 Ahwaz 104 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 74% (65–82%)
Alavi et al. [99] 2003 Ahwaz 142 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 52% (43–60%)
Alipour et al. [97] 2013 Mixed (Shiraz, Tehran, and Mashhad) 226 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 38% (32–44%)
Alizadeh et al. [96] 2002 Hamedan 149 CS SRS Prison 31% (24–39%)
Amin-Esmaeili et al. [15] 2005 Tehran 895 CS Conv Drop-in-centers and rehab center 34% (31–37%)
Aminzadeh et al. [94] 2007 Tehran 70 CS Conv Clinical: hospital & healthcare center 36% (24–47%)
Amini et al. [95] 2000 Tehran 34 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 65% (49–81%)
Ahmadzad-Asl et al. [93] 2004 Karaj 150 CS Conv Prison 75% (69–82%)
Ataei et al. [92] 2009 Isfahan 3284 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 38% (36–39%)
Ataei et al. [91] 2011 Isfahan 1485 CS Conv Prison 43% (40–45%)
Ataei et al. [90] 2011 Isfahan 136 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 19% (13–26%)
Azizi et al. [89] 2008 Kermanshah 263 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 33% (27–38%)
Davoodian et al. [88] 2002 Bandar abbas 249 CS SRS Prison 64% (58–70%)
Eskandarieh et al. [87] 2013 Tehran 258 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 65% (60–71%)
Fadaei Nobari et al. [63] 2008 Isfahan 1747 CS Conv Community-based 34% (31–36%)
Ghasemian et al. [86] 2009 Sari and Ghaemshahr 88 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 38% (27–48%)
Hajinasrollah et al. [85] 2005 Tehran 65 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 17% (7–26%)
Honarvar et al. [84] 2012 Shiraz 233 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 40% (34–46%)
Hosseini et al. [83] 2006 Tehran 417 CS Conv Prison 80% (76–83%)
Imani et al. [82] 2004 Shahr-e-Kord 133 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 11% (5–16%)
Ismail et al. [81] 2005 Tehran 65 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 17% (7–26%)
Kaffashian et al. [80] 2011 Isfahan 951 CS Conv Prison 42% (38–45%)
Kassaian et al. [79] 2009 Isfahan 943 CS Conv Prison 41% (38–44%)
Keramat et al. [78] 2006 Hamedan 199 CS Conv Behavioral consulting center 63% (56–70%)
Khani et al. [77] 2001 Zanjan 346 CS Conv Prison 50% (45–56%)
Kheirandish et al. [76] 2006 Tehran 454 CS Conv Prison 80% (76–83%)
Khodadadi-zadeh et al. [75] 2003 Rafsanjan 180 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 26% (19–32%)
Khorvash et al. [74] 2005 Isfahan 92 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 74% (65–83%)
Majidi et al. [127] 2010 Tehran 104 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 7% (2–11%)
Malekinejad et al. [73] 2007 Tehran 564 CS Respondent-driven sampling Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 84% (81–87%)
Mehrjerdi et al. [101] 2011 Tehran 209 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 26% (20–32%)
Meidani et al. [72] 2007 Isfahan 150 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 26% (19–33%)
Meshkati et al. [71] 2007 Isfahan 98 CS Conv Behavioural consulting center 52% (42–61%)
Mir-Nasseri et al. [68] 2002 Tehran 467 CS NS Drop-in-center and rehab center 66% (61–70%)
Mir-Nasseri et al. [69] 2002 Tehran 518 CS Conv Prison 69% (65–73%)
Mirahmadizadeh et al. [43] 2004 Shiraz 186 CS Conv NR 80% (74–85%)
Mirahmadizadeh et al. [70] 2009 Shiraz 1531 CS SRS Drop-in-center and rehab center 43% (40–45%)
Mobasheri Zadeh et al. [47] 2011 Isfahan 1055 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 7% (5–8%)
Mohtasham Amiri et al. [67] 2003 Rasht 81 CS Conv Prison 88% (82–95%)
Momen-Heravi et al. [66] 2012 Kashan 300 CS SRS Drop-in-center and rehab center 47% (41–52%)
Moradi et al. [65] 2015 Iran 678 CS SRS Prison 42% (38%–46%)
Naderi et al.[64] 2004 Tehran 144 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 22% (15–28%)
Nokhodian et al. [62] 2008 Isfahan 539 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 42% (37–46%)
Noroozi A et al. [42] 2011 Karaj, Isfahan, Gorgan 192 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 28% (21–34%)
Rahbar et al. [61] 2001 Mashhad 101 CC Conv Prison 59% (49–69%)
Rahimi-Movaghar et al. [60] 2005 Tehran 899 CS Snowball sampling Drop-in-center and rehab center 34% (31–37%)
Ramezani et al. [59] 2012 Arak 100 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 56% (46–65%)
Rezaie et al. [58] 2014 Kermanshah 410 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 42% (37–46%)
Rostami-Jalilian et al. [57] 2003 Isfahan 148 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 40% (32–48%)
Saleh et al. [56] 2008 Hamedan 94 CC Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 60% (50–70%)
Salehi et al. [55] 2009 Shiraz 1327 CS Conv Drop-in-center and rehab center 13% (11–15%)
Sani et al. [49] 2008 Mashhad 62 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 71% (59–82%)
Sarkari et al. [54] 2010 Yasuj 158 CS Conv NR 42% (34–49%)
Sayad et al. [53] 2006 Kermanshah 1721 CS SRS Community-based 50% (47–52%)
Sharhani et al. [52] 2017 Kermanshah 606 CS Conv Community-based 55% (51–59%)
Sharif et al. [51] 2004 Kashan 200 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 12% (7–16%)
Sofian et al. [50] 2009 Arak 153 CS Conv Prison 59% (51–67%)
Tayeri et al. [48] 2004 Isfahan 106 CS Conv Clinical: hospital and healthcare center 75% (67–83%)
Zali et al. [46] 1995 Tehran 402 CS SRS Prison 45% (40–49%)
Zamani et al. [45] 2004 Tehran 202 CS Conv Community-based 52% (45–58%)
Zamani et al. [21] 2008 Isfahan 118 CS Snowball sampling Drop-in-center and rehab center 59% (47–69%)
  1. CS cross-sectional study, CC case–control study, NR not reported, Conv convenience sampling, SRS systematic random sampling