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Table 2 Behavioral injection practices

From: Predictors of skin and soft tissue infections among sample of rural residents who inject drugs

Variable History of skin and soft tissue infection p value Odds ratio
Yes (n = 18) No (n = 62)
n (%) n (%)
Clean skin prior to injection Always 4 (22.2) 14 (22.6) 0.667 Ref
  Most of the time 4 (22.2) 13 (21.0)   1.09 each decrease in freq
  Sometimes 3 (16.7) 14 (22.6)   
  Rarely 3 (16.7) 10 (16.1)   
  Never 4 (22.2) 9 (14.5)   
Skin cleaning method Alcohol pad 8 (44.4) 40 (64.5) 0.073*  
  Soap and water 2 (11.1) 8 (12.9)   
  Tap water 1 (5.6) 2 (3.2)   
  Saliva 0 (0.0) 2 (3.2)   
  Hydrogen peroxide 1 (5.6) 0 (0.0)   
  Purell 0 (0.0) 1 (1.6)   
  Never clean before injecting 1 (5.6) 0 (0.0)   
  Prefer not to answer 1 (5.6) 0 (0.0)   
Skin cleaning method Sterile methods† 11 49 0.378 Ref
  Unsterile methods‡ 2 4   2.23
Wash hands prior to injection Always 4 (22.2) 16 (25.8) 0.205 Ref
  Most of the time 1 (5.6) 15 (24.2)   1.29 each decrease in freq
  Sometimes 5 (27.8) 11 (17.7)   
  Rarely 5 (27.8) 11 (17.7)   
  Never 3 (16.7) 7 (11.3)   
Water source Tap water (home) 12 (66.7) 46 (74.2) 0.559  
  Purchase from store 3 (16.7) 4 (6.5)   
  Syringe exchange 2 (11.1) 3 (4.8)   
  Tap water 0 (0.0) 4 (6.5)   
  (public bathroom)     
  N/A, liquid drug 0 (0.0) 2 (3.2)   
  I don’t know 0 (0.0) 1 (1.6)   
  Other 1 (5.6) 2 (3.2)   
Water source Sterile sources§ 5 7 0.093* Ref
  Unsterile sources# 12 50   0.34
  1. *Significant on the 0.10 level
  2. Sterile skin methods: alcohol pad, hydrogen peroxide, hand sanitizer, soap and water
  3. Unsterile skin methods: never clean skin before injective, saliva, tap water
  4. §Sterile water sources: purchase from store, syringe exchange program
  5. #Unsterile water sources: tap water (home), tap water (public bathroom)