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Table 1 Main themes investigated in 2019

From: Harm reduction in Europe: a framework for civil society-led monitoring

Domain Topic Questions type
OD prevention   
Policy level Existence of OD prevention guidelines or policies (national and local) Multiple choice (MC)
Naloxone Availability of naloxone (also in prison and to different groups of PWUD) and access barriers MC + open ended (OE)
  Availability of take-home naloxone, access barriers, and divergences between official guidelines and practice MC + OE
  Cost and types of naloxone available OE
  Availability of naloxone training MC + OE
  Future plans to increase naloxone OE
Drug consumption rooms New initiatives and legal framework to allow for DCRs MC + OE
Prison settings Availability of naloxone and pre-release naloxone in prison MC + OE
  OD prevention upon release MC
Other measures Evaluation of first responders OE
  Groups receiving OD prevention and education MC + OE
  OF and fentanyl MC + OE
  OD prevention for non-opioids MC + OE
Cooperation with policymakers Level of cooperation between CSOs and policymakers (country level) MC + OE
  Level of CSOs satisfaction with the cooperation OE
Involvement in data collection FPs contribution to data collection MC + OE
National legislation National legislation and guidelines for HCV treatment MC
  Perceived impact of the guidelines on service accessibility for PWID MC
  Availability and restrictions of DAA’s for PWID MC
  Divergences between official guidelines on DAAs and practice MC + OE
Continuum of care Types of services providing testing and treatment for PWID MC
  Service provider’s investment in prevention, testing or treatment MC
  PWUD networks participation on HCV advocacy MC + OE
  Main limitations to address HCV OE
  Predominant ‘traditional’ drugs of use (country/region/city) OE
  Predominant new substances of use (country/region/city) OE
  Developments in the past 6 months (new substances or new groups of PWUD) MC + OE
  Description of new substances (name, period, appearance, price, (un) desired effects, etc. MC + OE
  Description of new groups of PWUD (substances used, forms of use, motives to use) OE