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Table 1 Bivariable analyses of factors associated with recent use of DCS among PWUD in Vancouver (n = 828)

From: Factors associated with drug checking service utilization among people who use drugs in a Canadian setting

Characteristic Drug checking service use Odds ratio (95% CI) p value
Yes
n (%)
n = 176 (21.3%)
No
n (%)
n = 652 (78.7%)
Age (med, Q1–Q3) 39.5 (30.0–51.6) 41.3 (30.8–52.4) 1.00 (0.98–1.01) 0.577
Gender
 Male 93 (52.8) 358 (54.9) 1.03 (0.71–1.49) 0.896
 Non-male 56 (31.8) 221 (33.9)   
Ethnicity
 White 90 (51.1) 300 (46.0) 1.25 (0.89–1.75) 0.192
 Non-White 83 (47.2) 346 (53.1)   
Living in DTES*
 Yes 131 (74.4) 402 (61.7) 1.81 (1.25–2.65) 0.002
 No 45 (25.6) 250 (38.3)   
Drug dealing*
 Yes 49 (27.8) 111 (17.0) 1.87 (1.26–2.75) 0.002
 No 127 (72.2) 539 (82.7)   
Homelessness*
 Yes 62 (35.2) 158 (24.2) 1.71 (1.19–2.44) 0.003
 No 113 (64.2) 493 (75.6)   
Incarceration*
 Yes 19 (10.8) 44 (6.7) 1.67 (0.93–2.90) 0.076
 No 157 (89.2) 607 (93.1)   
Non-fatal Overdose*
 Yes 38 (21.6) 106 (16.3) 1.42 (0.93–2.13) 0.101
 No 138 (78.4) 545 (83.6)   
Binge drug use*
 Yes 75 (42.6) 241 (37.0) 1.26 (0.90–1.77) 0.176
 No 101 (57.4) 410 (62.9)   
Injection drug use*
 Yes 167 (94.9) 522 (80.1) 4.62 (2.43–9.97) < 0.001
 No 9 (5.1) 130 (19.9)   
Daily Benzodiazepine use*
 Yes 3 (1.7) 4 (0.6) 2.81 (0.55–12.87) 0.179
 No 172 (97.7) 645 (98.9)   
≥ Daily crack use*
 Yes 9 (5.1) 76 (11.7) 0.41 (0.19–0.79) 0.014
 No 167 (94.9) 576 (88.3)   
≥ Daily cocaine use*
 Yes 2 (1.1) 25 (3.8) 0.29 (0.05–0.98) 0.093
 No 174 (98.9) 627 (96.2)   
≥ Daily heroin Use*
 Yes 89 (50.6) 260 (39.9) 1.54 (1.10–2.16) 0.011
 No 87 (49.4) 392 (60.1)   
≥ Daily methamphetamine use*
 Yes 53 (30.1) 146 (22.4) 1.49 (1.03–2.16) 0.034
 No 123 (69.9) 506 (77.6)   
≥ Daily non-medical use of prescription opioids*
 Yes 10 (5.7) 16 (2.5) 2.39 (1.03–5.30) 0.034
 No 166 (94.3) 636 (97.5)   
  1. CI, confidence interval; DTES, downtown eastside; Q, quartile; med, median
  2. *Denotes activities/events in the past 6 months
  3. Refers to any route of consumption (i.e., sniffing, snorting, smoking or injecting)