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Table 1 Included papers

From: Peer driven or driven peers? A rapid review of peer involvement of people who use drugs in HIV and harm reduction services in low- and middle-income countries

  Reference Design Country
1 Ayon, S., et al. (2017). "Barriers and facilitators of access to HIV, harm reduction and sexual and reproductive health services by women who inject drugs: role of community-based outreach and drop-in centers." AIDS Care: 1–8 Qualitative study Kenya
2 Bartlett, N., et al. (2011). "A qualitative evaluation of a peer-implemented overdose response pilot project in Gejiu, China." International Journal of Drug Policy 22(4): 301–305 Qualitative study China
3 Booth, R. E., et al. (2016). "HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Ukraine: results from a clustered randomised trial." Lancet HIV 3(10): e482-489 Cluster randomized trial Ukraine
4 Booth, R. E., et al. (2009). "Use of a Peer Leader Intervention Model to Reduce Needle-Related Risk Behaviors among Drug Injectors in Ukraine." Journal of Drug Issues 39(3): 607–625 Survey with baseline and follow-up linked to intervention implementation Ukraine, Crimea
5 Booth, R. E., et al. (2011). "Individual and Network Interventions With Injection Drug Users in 5 Ukraine Cities." American journal of public health 101(2): 336–343 Survey with baseline and follow-up linked to intervention implementation Ukraine
6 Broadhead, R. S., et al. (2009). "Peer-Driven Interventions in Vietnam and China to Prevent HIV: A Pilot Study Targeting Injection Drug Users." Journal of Drug Issues 39(4): 829–850 Survey with baseline and follow-up linked to intervention implementation Vietnam and China
7 Des Jarlais, D. C., et al. (2007). "Reducing HIV infection among new injecting drug users in the China–Vietnam Cross Border Project." AIDS 21: S109-S114 Serial cross sectional survey cross broder between China and Vietnam
8 Dhand, A. (2006). "The roles performed by peer educators during outreach among heroin addicts in India: ethnographic insights." Social Science & Medicine 63(10): 2674–2685 Ethnography India
9 Friedman, S. R., et al. (2007). "Harm reduction theory: Users’ culture, micro-social indigenous harm reduction, and the self-organization and outside-organizing of users’ groups." International Journal of Drug Policy 18(2): 107–117 Secondary analysis of qualitative and quantitative data and studies New York City, Rotterdam, Buenos Aires, and sites in Central Asia
10 Go, V. F., et al. (2013). "Effects of an HIV peer prevention intervention on sexual and injecting risk behaviors among injecting drug users and their risk partners in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam: A randomized controlled trial." Social Science & Medicine 96: 154–164 Randomised Controlled Trial Vietnam
11 Hammett, T. M., et al. (2012). "Controlling HIV Epidemics among Injection Drug Users: Eight Years of Cross-Border HIV Prevention Interventions in Vietnam and China." PLoS ONE 7(8): e43141 Serial cross-sectional surveys, interviews and HIV tests Vietnam and China
12 Hayes-Larson, E., et al. (2013). "Drug users in Hanoi, Vietnam: factors associated with membership in community-based drug user groups." Harm Reduction Journal 10(1): 33 Survey Vietnam
13 Hoffman, I., et al. (2013). "A Peer-Educator Network HIV Prevention Intervention Among Injection Drug Users: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial in St. Petersburg, Russia." AIDS and Behavior 17(7): 2510–2520 Randomised Controlled Trial Russia
14 Jain, B., et al. (2014). "Effect of peer-led outreach activities on injecting risk behavior among male drug users in Haryana, India." Harm Reduction Journal 11(1): 3 Programme data India
15 Kerr, T., et al. (2010). "Expanding the reach of harm reduction in Thailand: Experiences with a drug user-run drop-in centre." International Journal of Drug Policy 21(3): 255–258 Cross-sectional survey Thailand
16 Kumar, M. S., et al. (1998). "Community-based outreach HIV intervention for street-recruited drug users in Madras, India." Public Health Reports 113(Suppl 1): 58–66 Randomised Controlled Trial India
17 Latkin, C. A., et al. (2009). "The efficacy of a network intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Chiang Mai, Thailand and Philadelphia, USA." Social Science & Medicine 68(4): 740–748 Randomised Controlled Trial USA and Thailand
18 Le, L. T., et al. (2015). "Coalition building by drug user and sex worker community-based organizations in Vietnam can lead to improved interactions with government agencies: a qualitative study." Harm Reduction Journal 12(1): 38 Qualitative study Vietnam
19 Liu, B., et al. (2007). "An evaluation of needle exchange programmes in China." AIDS 21: S123-S128 Cross sectional survey China
20 Moorthi, G. (2014). "Models, experts and mutants: Exploring the relationships between peer educators and injecting drug user clients, in Delhi's harm reduction programs." Qualitative Social Work 13(1): 69–84 Ethnography India
21 Ngo, A. D., et al. (2009). "Qualitative evaluation of a peer-based needle syringe programme in Vietnam." International Journal of Drug Policy 20(2): 179–182 Qualitative study Vietnam
22 Sherman, S. G., et al. (2009). "Evaluation of a peer network intervention trial among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai, Thailand." Social Science & Medicine 68(1): 69–79 Randomised Controlled Trial Thailand
23 Smyrnov, P., et al. (2012). "Rejuvenating harm reduction projects for injection drug users: Ukraine's nationwide introduction of peer-driven interventions." International Journal of Drug Policy 23(2): 141–147 Programme data Ukraine
24 Stengel, C. M., et al. (2018). " “They accept me, because I was one of them”: formative qualitative research supporting the feasibility of peer-led outreach for people who use drugs in Dakar, Senegal." Harm Reduction Journal 15(1): 9 Qualitative study Senegal
25 Ti, L., et al. (2012). "HIV testing and willingness to get HIV testing at a peer-run drop-in centre for people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand." BMC Public Health 12 Cross-sectional survey Thailand
26 Ti, L., et al. (2013). "Low rates of hepatitis C testing among people who inject drugs in Thailand: implications for peer-based interventions." J Public Health (Oxf) 35(4): 578–584 Cross-sectional survey Thailand
27 Van Khoat, D., et al. (2003). "Peer Education for HIV Prevention in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: A National Assessment." Journal of Community Health 28(1): 1–17 Review of annual reports, combined with qualitative study Vietnam
28 Walsh, N., et al. (2009). "The development of peer educator‐based harm reduction programmes in northern Vietnam." Drug and Alcohol Review 27(2): 200–203 Rapid assessment linked to programme reflections Vietnam
29 Wang, K., et al. (2014). "Do community-based strategies reduce HIV risk among people who inject drugs in China? A quasi-experimental study in Yunnan and Guangxi provinces." Harm Reduction Journal 11(1): 15 Survey China