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Table 2 Participant characteristics by location n = 149, presented as either number of participants (percent frequency) or mean (standard deviation)

From: Combining respondent-driven sampling with a community-based participatory action study of people who smoke drugs in two cities in British Columbia, Canada

Demographic variables of participants Abbotsford (n = 79) DTES (n = 70) P value
n or mean (% or SD) n or mean (% or SD)
Age 43(10) 46(12) 0.12
Male 29(37) 42(61)  < 0.01*
Homeless 32(41) 19(27) 0.09
House/apartment 24(30) 14(20) 0.15
Living with friends or family 13(16) 2(3) 0.01*
Supported living 10(13) 35(50)  < 0.01*
First Nations 22(28) 40(58)  < 0.01*
Relationship status 16(20) 20(29) 0.24
Medical condition
HCV 36(46) 23(33) 0.11
No medical condition 29(37) 32(46) 0.26
Anxiety 42(53) 37(53) 0.97
Depression 49(62) 35(50) 0.14
No mental conditions 12(15) 13(19) 0.58
Other mental conditions 41(52) 31(44) 0.35
Drug use
Meth 61(77) 38(54)  < 0.01*
Crack 29(37) 42(60)  < 0.01*
Pipe source
Outreach organizations 60(76) 62(89) 0.05*
Store 23(29) 7(10)  < 0.01*
Peers 19(24) 2(3)  < 0.01*
Lend, borrow, or shared pipes 59(75) 25(36)  < 0.01*
Overdosed in the past month 11(14) 4(6) 0.11
Trained on how to use naloxone (Narcan) 43(54) 57(81)  < 0.01*
Trained on CPR 46(58) 56(80)  < 0.01*
Carry naloxone 37(47) 33(47) 0.97
Have rescued peers who have overdosed 32(41) 34(49) 0.28
Arrested for smoking or using illicit drugs in public 14(18) 10(14) 0.57
Received tickets for smoking or using illicit drugs 5(6) 7(10) 0.41
Have experienced violence or exploitation when using drugs in public by
Users 48(61) 35(50) 0.19
Dealers 31(39) 26(37) 0.79
Police 27(34) 21(30) 0.59
Have experienced psychosis or paranoia as a result of smoking illicit drugs 51(65) 40(57) 0.35
Have had blisters, cuts, damage, or infections to mouth, oral area or lips in the last month 27(34) 12(17) 0.02*
Number of days since visiting a doctor or a nurse 249(585) 47(91) 0.01*
Public drug use 69(87) 37(53)  < 0.01*
Pipe screen material
Brillo 27(34) 32(46) 0.15
Brass 28(35) 26(37) 0.83
Meth equipment 31(39) 17(24)  
Network characteristics
Network size 23(14) 19(14) 0.11
  1. *Statistical difference p < 0.05