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Table 3 Intervention components targeting the eight identified patterns of drug-use related behaviours

From: Reducing drug-use harms among higher education students: MyUSE contextual-behaviour change digital intervention development using the Behaviour Change Wheel

Pattern of drug-use related target behaviours COM-B mapped elements targeted Intervention Function served Coded identified (from BCTTv1) BCTs selected Translation of BCTs within MyUSE intervention
Cluster 1: Increase awareness about the real vs. anticipated effects drug-use can have on students’ personally desired behaviours Reflective motivation Education 5.1 Information about health consequences Provide a personalized animated feedback explaining the possible health-related risks and harms per drug-use type and frequency
5.3 Information about social and environmental consequences Present a gamified quiz showing the possible consequences of drugs in students’ academic and emotional area of living (e.g. legal problems, etc.)
5.6 Information about emotional consequences  
6.3 Information about others’ approval Provide a subjunctive norm correction, in a gamified quiz way
13.4 Valued self-identity Include a story-telling exercise requesting from students to produce self-statements of their life they want while in college
Cluster 2: Promote identification of personally relevant activities (which are they?) which lead to positive expected outcomes in students’ desired behaviours (fun & enjoyment)   Education 1.3 Goal setting (outcome) Present an interactive value’s identification and committed action exercise
7.2 Cue signalling reward Present a reflective- non-judgmental rhetorical question, prompting students to consider how their values match with drug-use behaviours
13.2 Framing/reframing Suggest the adoption of alternative to drug-use activities as means to enhance fun and enjoyment
Modelling 5.6 Information about emotional consequences Present a mindful-based exercise (“how fully present am I?”), prompting students to visualize (mental representation) how they would feel after achieving college-related goals
15.1 Verbal persuasion about capability Use motivational cards to show how students can pursue value committed actions
16.3 Vicarious learning Present a scenario-based story showing a student pursuing his/her goals while enjoying college’s years
Training 1.4 Action planning Prompt students to use their e-calendar to plan implementing SMART defined goals
Cluster 3: Increase perceived competence & optimism that an implementation plan of alternatives to drug-use activities can induce positive expected experiences (fun & enjoyment)   Education 1.3 Goal setting (outcome) Use an animation to educate how commitment to SMART goals can work as alternative to drug-use behaviours and reinforce the deliberate adoption of several, non-drug-use behaviours, asserting that these behaviours can elicit as fun as drugs can, without putting students into risks or harms
1.9 Commitment  
6.3 Information about others’ approval  
8.2 Behaviour substitutions  
8.6 Generalization of a target behaviour  
13.2 Framing/reframing  
15.1 Verbal persuasion about capability  
Cluster 4: Increase awareness of the university context as a risk factor that increase the chances for drug-use behaviours and how this can restrict students from having positive college’s experiences   Education 2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour Explain the role of cues (triggers of use) within an ABC analysis (behavioural analysis), prompting students to identify (self-monitoring) their own antecedent triggers in relation to the context of use
4.2 Information about antecedents  
Modelling 7.1 Prompt/cues Show how self-talk can be used to help students recognize cues that can influence decision making in relation to drug-use
15.4 Self-talk  
Cluster 5: Cultivate mindful awareness of the perceived reasons for using (why I use?) and increase insight as to whether the use leads to desired outcomes in goal-directed behaviours at a long-run   Education 1.6 Discrepancy between current behaviours and goals Present a personalized feedback showing students’ level of behavioural awareness and goal attainment (i.e. whether their decision to take drugs is influenced by others). Then, prompt students to monitor whether there is a discrepancy between goals and present behaviours
2.4 Self-monitoring of the outcomes of behaviours  
4.1 Instructions on how to perform a behaviour Introduce via an animation the mindful decision-making skill (learn to pause step-back, notice and decide) and prompt students to think how this skill resonates with their role identity
8.1 Behavioural practice/rehearsal  
13.4 Valued self-identity  
4.2 Information about antecedents Prompt students to apply the new skills to identify cues
Modelling 4.1 Instructions on how to perform a behaviour Present via a story-narrative (a party house) how a student applying mindful decision-making skill (pausing- noticing- deciding) in a situation requiring drug-use decision making.@@Reinforce students’ capacity to apply the new skill in different situations
6.1 Demonstration of the behaviour (modelling)  
8.1 Behavioural practice/rehearsal  
8.6 Generalization of a target behaviour  
15.1 Verbal persuasion about capability  
Training 6.1 Demonstration of the behaviour Present a series of mindful cards demonstrating what mindful decision-making skill does and advice for a gradual implementation of this skill building activity
8.7 Graded tasks  
Cluster 6: Resolve students’ misleading expectations about the expected outcomes of drug-use in students’ desired behaviours in the long-run Automatic motivation Education 5.2 Salience of consequences Provide a general performance score in a drug-use quiz activity. Wrong-answered responses will provide feedback that will target at correcting students’ expectations about the effect of drugs in the long-run. They will also aim at increasing awareness about the potential regrets, students may experience from the use of drugs
13.2 Framing/reframing  
Persuasion 5.5 Anticipated regret  
Cluster 7: Increase procedural knowledge and practice skills on how harm-reduction practices are implemented within the university context Capability physical Education 1.8 Behavioural contract Present a series of harm-reduction practices and invite students to select the ones that best fit with their experiences (personalized plan)
4.1 Instructions on how to perform a behaviour Show instructions in detail on how to perform selected harm-reduction practices via a series of illustrative cards
8.6 Generalization of the target behaviour Prompts students to generalize the new harm-reduction practices, including awareness of exposure to cues, to multiple different situation
12.3 Avoidance/ reducing exposure to cues for the behaviour  
Modelling 1.9 Commitment Show an animation illustrating a student to perform one harm reduction practice, highlighting his/her commitment
4.1 Instruction on how to perform a behaviour  
Training 4.1 Instruction on how to perform a behaviour  
6.1 Demonstration of the behaviour  
Cluster 8: Promote behavioural awareness and behavioural regulation regarding drug-use decision making under the influence of peers Social Opportunity Education 1.6 Discrepancy between current behaviour and goal Prompt students to reflect on their personalized feedback scores in questionnaires assessing levels of decision making influenced by others
4.1 Instruction on how to perform a behaviour Present instructions on how to promote behavioural awareness in relation to decision making
4.2 Information about antecedents Prompt students to think peers’ influences as antecedent (cues) for them to use drugs
5.2 Salience of consequences  
8.2 Behavioural substitution Promote a mindful decision-making, highlighting that influences from peers should be aware
8.7 Graded tasks Provide suggestions on building the new behavioural regulation skill (behavioural awareness)
13.2 Framing/reframing Prompt students to consider their feedback on subjunctive norm correction (how behaviours are approved by others) in relation to their valued identity
15.2 Mental rehearsal of successful performance Advise students to imagine themselves taking a mindful decision, despite the presence of peers’ influence
Modelling 4.1 Instruction on how to perform a behaviour Illustrate an animation (a narrative story) with a student denying using drugs, while recognizing the potential influence of peers
6.1 Demonstration of the behaviour  
  1. Note 1: Physical opportunity was not targeted
  2. Note 2: Translation of BCTs into digitally delivered components represents only concepts which are designed into ideations prototypes to be tested with students, rather than actual implementation practices for the MyUSE digital intervention