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Table 2 Cumulative incidence, incidence rate per 100 person years, and unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios among female spouses of male HIV-positive PWID by demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviour and knowledge

From: HIV incidence and associated risk factors in female spouses of men who inject drugs in Pakistan

Characteristic Cumulative incidence
Number (%)
Incidence density per 100 person years (95% CI) Unadjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) p value Adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) p value
Total N = 109/3478 (3.1) 1.5 (1.2–1.8)     
Province
Sindh 28/1213 (2.3) 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
Punjab 80/2197 (3.6) 1.8 (1.4–2.2) 1.74 (1.13–2.67) 0.012 1.73 (1.13–2.68) 0.012
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 0/38 (0)
Balochistan 1/30 (3.3) 1.5 (0.2–10.3) 1.44 (0.20–10.6) 0.978 0.98 (0.13–7.2) 0.983
Age group (tertiles)
≥ 36 years 26/1168 (2.3) 1.1 (0.7–1.5) 1.0 (Reference)   
30–35 years 37/1122 (3.3) 1.6 (1.2–2.2) 1.55 (0.94–2.26) 0.086   
< 30 years 46/1188 (3.9) 1.9 (1.4–2.5) 1.79 (1.10–2.92) 0.019   
Age at first marriage (tertiles)
10–17 years 40/1220 (3.3) 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 1.0 (Reference)   
18–20 years 37/1373 (2.7) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 0.86 (0.55–1.34) 0.505   
≥ 21 years 32/885 (3.6) 1.9 (1.3–2.7) 1.25 (0.79–2.00) 0.341   
Childrena
None 15/322 (4.7) 2.5 (1.5–4.2) 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
1–2 children 41/1273 (3.2) 1.5 (1.1–2.1) 0.61 (0.34–1.10) 0.100 0.60 (0.33–1.09) 0.095
3–4 children 36/1214 (3.0) 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 0.56 (0.31–1.02) 0.060 0.55 (0.30–1.00) 0.053
≥ 5 children 17/669 (2.5) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 0.45 (0.22–0.90) 0.024 0.44 (0.22–0.88) 0.022
Educationa
None 71/2441 (2.9) 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
1–5 years 29/516 (5.6) 2.7 (1.9–3.8) 1.92 (1.25–2.96) 0.003 1.89 (1.22–2.93) 0.004
6–10 years 7/350 (2.0) 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 0.74 (0.34–1.61) 0.451 0.86 (0.39–1.89) 0.707
High school graduate 2/171 (1.2) 0.6 (0.1–2.3) 0.43 (0.11–1.76) 0.241 0.54 (0.13–2.25) 0.399
Source of incomea
None 48/1354 (3.6) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 1.0 (Reference)   
Textiles 50/1787 (2.8) 1.4 (1.0–1.8) 0.82 (0.55–1.22) 0.331   
House main/cleaner 6/155 (3.9) 1.6 (0.7–3.6) 0.98 (0.42–2.30) 0.967   
Beautician 3/41 (7.3) 3.4 (1.1–10.6) 2.00 (0.62–6.41) 0.246   
Other 2/141 (1.4) 0.7 (0.2–2.7) 0.41 (0.10–1.67) 0.212   
Ever surgical procedurea
No 93/2915 (3.2) 1.5 (1.2–1.9) 1.0 (Reference)   
Yes 16/563 (2.8) 1.4 (0.8–2.2) 0.89 (0.52–1.52) 0.673   
Ever STI treatmenta
No 108/3318 (3.3) 1.6 (1.3–1.9) 1.0 (Reference)   
Yes 1/160 (0.6) 0.3 (0.04–2.0) 0.18 (0.02–1.27) 0.086   
Condom used at last sexual intercoursea
No 97/2981 (3.3) 1.6 (1.3–1.9) 1.0 (Reference)   
Yes 12/497 (2.4) 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 0.76 (0.41–1.38 0.360   
Ever injected drugsa
No 108/3463 (3.1) 1.5 (1.2–1.8) 1.0 (Reference)   
Yes 1/15 (6.7) 3.0 (0.4–20.9) 1.96 (0.27–14.0) 0.505   
Heard about HIVa
No 99/2902 (3.4) 1.7 (1.4–2.0) 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
Yes 10/576 (1.7) 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.48 (0.25–0.92) 0.026 0.51 (0.26–0.99) 0.047
Male spouse average condoms received per annum (tertiles)
< 4 27/1109 (2.4) 1.4 (0.9–2.0) 1.0 (Reference)   
5–15 36/1113 (3.2) 1.6 (1.2–2.3) 1.21 (0.73–1.99) 0.460   
> 15 46/1256 (3.7) 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 1.10 (0.68–1.77) 0.703   
Male spouse initiated ARTb
No 82/1704 (4.8) 2.7 (2.1–3.3) 1.0 (Reference)   1.0 (Reference)
Yes 27/1774 (1.5) 0.6 (0.4–0.9) 0.24 (0.15–0.37)  < 0.001 0.25 (0.16–0.38)  < 0.001
  1. STI Sexually transmissible infection, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, ART antiretroviral therapy
  2. aAt baseline
  3. bPrior to censorship