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Table 2 Univariate and multivariable analysis for HIV infection among PWIDs in China, 2008–2016

From: Epidemic of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in mainland China: a series, cross-sectional study

Characteristics HIV n (%) Prevalence (%) OR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI)
Total 5167 (100.0) 5.0   
Sex     
 Male 4589 (88.8) 5.0 1.00 1.00
 Female 578 (11.2) 5.2 0.95 (0.87–1.04) 1.27 (1.15–1.39)***
Age     
 ~ 24 270 (5.2) 3.1 1.00 1.00
 25–44 4180 (80.9) 5.2 1.71 (1.51–1.94)*** 2.31 (2.03–2.64)***
 45 ~ 715 (13.8) 5.0 1.64 (1.42–1.89)*** 2.57 (2.20–3.00)***
 Missing 2 (0.0) 18.2 6.95 (1.49–32.30)* 7.84 (1.48–40.57)*
Ethnicity     
 Han 3584 (69.4) 4.1 1.00 1.00
 Minority 1419 (27.5) 12.3 3.29 (3.08–3.51)*** 2.61 (2.43–2.80)***
 Missing 164 (3.2) 3.9 0.95 (0.81–1.11) 0.96 (0.81–1.13)
Education     
 High school or above 334 (6.5) 2.9 1.00 1.00
 Junior high school 2728 (52.8) 4.2 1.49 (1.33–1.67)*** 1.41 (1.26–1.59)***
 Primary school or below 1965 (38.0) 7.7 2.82 (2.51–3.18)*** 2.00 (1.77–2.26)***
Missing 140 (2.7) 6.2 2.22 (1.81–2.72)*** 2.01 (1.36–2.97)***
Marital status     
 Married 2106 (40.8) 4.5 1 1
 Unmarried 2389 (46.2) 5.4 1.23 (1.16–1.30)*** 1.20 (1.13–1.28)***
 Divorced/widows 562 (10.9) 5.1 1.15 (1.05–1.27)** 1.08 (0.98–1.20)
 Missing 110 (2.1) 6.3 1.43 (1.17–1.75)*** 1.25 (0.82–1.92)
Drug types     
 Opioids 5139 (99.5) 5.0 1.00 1.00
 Other types 28 (0.5) 3.6 0.72 (0.49–1.05) 0.86 (0.58–1.27)
Methadone treatment status     
 No 3921 (75.9) 4.8 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1246 (24.1) 5.9 1.25 (1.17–1.34)*** 1.59 (1.49–1.71)***
Year     
 2008 406 (7.9) 4.9 1.00 1.00
 2009 775 (15.0) 4.3 0.87 (0.77–0.98)* 0.97 (0.85–1.10)
 2010 486 (9.4) 3.3 0.67 (0.58–0.76)*** 0.74 (0.64–0.85)***
 2011 425 (8.2) 3.7 0.74 (0.65–0.86)*** 0.77 (0.67–0.89)***
 2012 481 (9.3) 4.4 0.90 (0.78–1.03) 0.82 (0.71–0.94)**
 2013 616 (11.9) 5.1 1.04 (0.91–1.18) 0.81 (0.70–0.92)**
 2014 748 (14.5) 6.0 1.24 (1.10–1.41)** 0.95 (0.83–1.08)
 2015 862 (16.7) 7.8 1.64 (1.45–1.85)*** 1.14 (1.00–1.30)*
 2016 368 (7.1) 8.6 1.83 (1.58–2.12)*** 1.28 (1.09–1.49)**
Region     
 Southwest 2285 (44.2) 13.2 1.00 1.00
 Northwest 333 (6.4) 5.8 0.41 (0.36–0.46)*** 0.42 (0.37–0.47)***
 South 1556 (30.1) 5.0 0.34 (0.32–0.37)*** 0.39 (0.36–0.41)***
 Northeast 128 (2.5) 8.1 0.58 (0.48–0.70)*** 0.74 (0.61–0.89)**
 Central 321 (6.2) 1.7 0.11 (0.10–0.13)*** 0.14 (0.12–0.16)***
 North 158 (3.1) 3.3 0.23 (0.19–0.27)*** 0.26 (0.22–0.31)***
 East 386 (7.5) 1.6 0.11 (0.10–0.12)*** 0.13 (0.12–0.15)***
  1. PWIDs, persons who inject drugs
  2. ***suggested p < 0.001; **suggested p < 0.01; *suggested p < 0.05