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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate multinomial analysis of demographic and clinical factors associated with overdose status (N = 2360)

From: Factors associated with opioid overdose during medication-assisted treatment: How can we identify individuals at risk?

   Univariate multinomial analysis Multivariate multinomial analysis
Overdose status Covariate OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
No reported overdoses [reference]
Lifetime history of overdoses Age by five-year increments 0.99 0.98, 1.00 0.024 0.93 0.89, 0.98 0.007
  Sex 0.95 0.78, 1.15 0.595 0.88 0.72, 1.08 0.210
  MAT 0.85 0.66, 1.08 0.175 1.19 0.88, 1.60 0.254
  Dose 1.00 1.00, 1.01 < 0.001 1.00 1.00, 1.01 0.005
  Years in treatment 1.02 1.00, 1.04 0.061 1.02 1.00, 1.04 0.082
  Have access to naloxone kits 1.77 1.38, 2.28 < 0.001 1.59 1.23, 2.06 < 0.001
  Suicidal Ideation 1.39 1.10, 1.75 0.005 1.17 0.92, 1.50 0.202
  Total physical symptoms score on MAP 1.02 1.01, 1.04 < 0.001 1.02 1.01, 1.03 0.005
  Alcohol use (past 30 days) 1.03 0.84, 1.26 0.776 1.01 0.82, 1.24 0.927
  Prescription benzodiazepine use 1.28 0.99, 1.65 0.059 1.08 0.83, 1.42 0.559
  Non-prescription use of benzodiazepines (past 30 days) 2.23 1.59, 3.13 < 0.001 1.87 1.32, 2.66 < 0.001
  Opioid abstinence at study entry 0.85 0.69, 1.04 0.122 0.92 0.74, 1.14 0.445
ED visit for overdose in the last year Age by 5-year increments 0.95 0.94, 0.97 < 0.001 0.84 0.77, 0.92 < 0.001
  Sex 0.84 0.62, 1.15 0.286 0.77 0.55, 1.08 0.128
  MAT 0.96 0.65, 1.40 0.819 0.73 0.45, 1.16 0.181
  Dose 1.00 0.99, 1.00 0.015 1.00 0.99, 1.00 0.068
  Years in treatment 0.88 0.84, 0.92 < 0.001 0.92 0.87, 0.97 0.001
  Have access to naloxone kits 2.54 1.59, 4.06 < 0.001 1.90 1.17, 3.08 0.01
  Suicidal Ideation 2.07 1.48, 2.91 < 0.001 1.40 0.97, 2.03 0.071
  Total physical symptoms score on MAP 1.03 1.02, 1.05 < 0.001 1.03 1.01, 1.05 0.005
  Alcohol use (past 30 days) 1.25 0.91, 1.71 0.170 1.02 0.73, 1.43 0.886
  Prescription benzodiazepine use 0.88 0.56, 1.38 0.582 1.02 0.63, 1.63 0.944
  Non-prescription use of benzodiazepines (past 30 days) 3.25 2.05, 5.13 < 0.001 2.34 1.43, 3.81 0.001
  Opioid abstinence at study entry 0.39 0.26, 0.59 < 0.001 0.49 0.32, 0.75 0.001
  1. OR Relative risk ratio, CI confidence interval