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Table 1 Demographics and health characteristics among the study population, stratified by syringe service program use

From: Injections and infections: understanding syringe service program utilization in a rural state

  Overall
n = 101
SSP usea
n = 65
No SSP use
n = 36
p valueb
Demographics
Femalec 56 (55%) 40 (62%) 16 (44%) 0.10
Mean age (SD) 36 (7) 36 (8) 36 (6) 0.94
Caucasian 95 (94%) 61 (94%) 34 (94%) 1.0
Insuranced
 Medicaid 60 (61%) 39 (61%) 21 (60%) 0.13
 Medicare 6 (6%) 6 (9%) 0  
 Dual Medicare/Medicaid 3 (3%) 3 (5%) 0  
 Commercial 5 (5%) 2 (3%) 3 (9%)  
 Uninsured 25 (25%) 14 (22%) 11 (31%)  
Primary care provider 68 (67%) 48 (74%) 20 (56%) 0.06
History of incarcerationc 90 (89%) 61 (94%) 29 (81%) 0.05
Experiencing homelessness 46 (46%) 36 (55%) 10 (28%) 0.01
Small/Isolated rural 18 (18%) 5 (8%) 13 (36%) < 0.01
 > 10 miles from SSP 57 (56%) 28 (43%) 29 (81%) < 0.01
Health characteristics
Person with HIV 1 (1%) 1 (1.5%) 0 (0) 0.61
Hepatitis B infection 8 (8%) 6 (9%) 2 (6%) 0.71
Hepatitis C exposure 73 (72%) 50 (77%) 23 (64%) 0.16
Condomless sex 76 (75%) 46 (71%) 30 (83%) 0.16
Pregnant 3 (3.0%) 2 (3%) 1 (3%) 1.0
History of infectious complications
 Endocarditis 52 (51%) 36 (55%) 16 (44%) 0.29
 Skin/soft tissue infection 31 (31%) 21 (32%) 10 (28%) 0.64
 Septic emboli 26 (26%) 19 (29%) 7 (19%) 0.28
 Bacteremia/sepsis 18 (56%) 14 (22%) 6 (17%) 0.56
 Septic joint 11 (11%) 7 (11%) 4 (11%) 1.0
 Epidural abscess 14 (14%) 5 (8%) 9 (25%) 0.03
Osteomyelitis/Diskitis 26 (26%) 13 (20%) 13 (36%) 0.08
History of sexually transmitted infection 27 (27%) 21 (32%) 6 (17%) 0.09
Any mental health condition 91 (90%) 62 (95%) 29 (81%) 0.03
Charlson comorbidity index (1 or more) 25 (24%) 15 (23%) 10 (28%) 0.60
Hepatitis A vaccine completion 58 (58%) 39 (61%) 19 (54%) 0.52
Hepatitis B vaccine completion 53 (53%) 37 (58%) 16 (44%) 0.20
Tdap vaccination 43 (43%) 33 (51%) 10 (28%) 0.03
  1. aSSP = syringe service program; bPearson’s chi-squared; Fisher’s exact test; t-test; cn = 1 female to male transgender participant identified as male; thus, was categorized as male; dmissing n = 2