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Table 2 Substance use characteristics and syringe acquisition/disposal in study participants, stratified by syringe service program use

From: Injections and infections: understanding syringe service program utilization in a rural state

  Overall
n = 101 (%)
SSP usea
n = 65 (%)
No SSP use n = 36 (%) p valueb
Substance use characteristics
Drug use severity (mean SIP-DUc (standard deviation)) 33 (12) 33 (12) 32 (13) 0.71
Unhealthy alcohol use (positive AUDIT-C score)d 31 (31%) 17 (26%) 14 (39%) 0.20
Skin infection risk (median BIRSI-7 scoree) 3.8 (1.6) 3.75 (1.5) 3.81 (1.8) 0.88
Injection drugs of choice     0.03
 Heroin 39 (40%) 32 (49%) 7 (21%)  
 Fentanyl 14 (14%) 7 (11%) 7 (21%)  
 Cocaine 11 (11%) 7 (11%) 4 (12%)  
 Amphetamine 11 (11%) 9 (14%) 2 (6%)  
 Buprenorphine 8 (8%) 3 (5%) 5 (15%)  
 Speedball (cocaine + heroin) 9 (9%) 5 (8%) 4 (12%)  
 Other 6 (6%) 2 (3%) 4 (12%)  
History of overdose 54 (53%) 42 (65%) 12 (33%) < 0.01
MOUDf before admission 67 (66%) 46 (71%) 21 (58%) 0.20
Naloxone uptake 48 (48%) 36 (55%) 12 (33%) 0.03
Injected alone 30 days prior to hospitalization 89 (91%) 60(92%) 29 (88%) 0.50
Syringe acquisition and disposal
Used new needle always/most of the time 42 (42%) 34 (52%) 8 (22%) 0.05
Used clean works (cookers, filters) always/most of the time 24 (24%) 20 (31%) 4 (11%) 0.04
Where needles acquiredg     < 0.01
 SSP 39 (39%) 38 (59%) 1 (3%)  
 Pharmacy 51 (51%) 23 (35%) 28 (80%)  
 Peer exchange 9 (9%) 3 (5%) 6 (17%)  
Interest in mobile harm reduction unit 97 (97%) 65 (100%) 32 (91%) 0.04
Interest in supervised injection facility 93 (93%) 62 (95%) 31 (89%) 0.24
  1. aSSP = syringe service program; bPearson’s chi-squared; Fisher’s exact test; t-test; cSIP-DU = Short-inventory of Problems-Modified for Drug Use; dAUDIT-C = Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; eBacterial Skin Index Risk Score; fMedication for opioid use disorder; n = 14 prescribed methadone, n = 45 buprenorphine or buprenorphine/naloxone, n = 8 self-reported prescription for either methadone, buprenorphine, or buprenorphine/naloxone; no participants self-reported naltrexone; gn = 1 other