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Table 1 9 key domains adapted from Adams et al. [59]

From: What are the ethical implications of using prize-based contingency management in substance use? A scoping review

Domain Description
Direction Is the incentive a positive gain for meeting the target or avoidance of a negative loss for failing to meet such a target?
Form What type of incentive is used? (e.g., cash, goods, services, vouchers, etc.)
Magnitude What is the total value of the incentive offered?
Certainty How certain are participants of receiving the incentive? Incentives are certain if they are automatically given upon meeting a target. In contrast, there is only a certain chance of receiving an incentive when delivered in the form of a standardized prize bowl and uncertain chances when delivered using a lottery-style incentive.
Target What is the target of the incentive? Targets can include processes (e.g., attending a group session), behaviors (e.g., abstinence), and outcomes (e.g., negative urine drug screening).
Frequency What proportion of target processes, behaviors, or outcomes are actually incentivized? Is the person receiving an incentive every time or some times?
Immediacy What is the period between meeting a target and receiving the incentive?
Schedule Is the schedule fixed or variable? Fixed schedule provide the same incentive every time the target is achieved while a variable schedule provides different (and often escalating) incentives. For example, a second negative urine drug screening warrants two draws, fourth negative urine sample warrants four draws and so forth.
Recipient Is the recipient an individual, group, significant other, clinician, or parent?