Skip to main content

Table 2 Descriptive analysis based on 9 key domains [59] (n = 39)

From: What are the ethical implications of using prize-based contingency management in substance use? A scoping review

Author Date Direction Magnitude (%) Certainty Process Behavior Outcome Frequency Immediacy Schedule Recipient
1. Petry et al. 2000 + 75 Certain X   X All Immediate Variable Individual
2. Petry et al. 2001 + 50 Certain X X   All Immediate Variable Individual
3. Petry et al. 2002 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
4. Petry et al. 2004 +/− 50 Certain X   X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
5. Petry et al. 2005 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
6. Petry & Alessi et al. 2005 +/− 37.2 Certain X   X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
7. Petry & Martin et al. 2005 +/− 50 Certain   X X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
8. Peirce et al. 2006 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
9. Petry et al. 2006 +/− 45 Certain X   X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
10. Alessi et al. 2007 +/− N/Ra; 50b Uncertaina; Certainb   X X Somea;
Allb
Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
11. Petry et al. 2007 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
12. Ghitza et al. 2007 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
13. Alessi et al. 2008 +/− 100; 50* Certain    X Some Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
14. Kirby et al. 2008 +/− 50 Uncertain    X Some Immediate Variable (E-R) Group
15. Ledgerwood et al. 2008 +/− 100 Uncertain   X   Some Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
16. Preston et al. 2008 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
17. Lot et al. 2009 +/− 50 Certain   X X All Delayed Variable (E-R) Individual
18. Olmstead et al. 2009 +/− 37.2 Certain   X X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
19. Walker et al. 2010 +/− 501;
1002
Certain1;
Uncertain2
  X   All1;
Some2
Immediate1 Delayed2 Variable (E-R) Individual
20. Hser et al. 2011 +/− 50 Certain   X X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
21. Petry et al. 2011 +/− 100 Uncertain   X X Some Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
22. Branson et al. 2012 + 85 Certain   X   All Immediate Variable Individual
23. Carroll et al. 2012 + 57.7 Certain X   X All Immediate Variable Individual
24. Jiang et al. 2012 + N/R Uncertain    X Some Immediate Variable Individual
25. Killeen et al. 2012 +/− 60 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
26. Petry et al. 2012 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
27. Petry & Barry et al. 2012 +/− 501
100; 50*2
Certain X   X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
28. Chen et al. 2013 +/− 50 Certain X X X All Delayed Variable (E-R) Individual
29. Hagedorn et al. 2013 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
30. McDonell et al. 2013 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
31. Petry et al. 2013 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
32. Roll et al. 2013 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
33. Alessi et al. 2014 +/− 100; 50* Certain    X Some Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
34. Ledgerwood et al. 2014 +/− 50 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
35. Petry et al. 2015 +/− 66; 33*1
76; 50 *2
Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
36. Cunningham et al. 2017 +/− 50 Certain X   X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
37. Kropp et al. 2017 + N/R Uncertain X X   Some Delayed Fixed Individual
38. Petry et al. 2018 +/− 50 Certain X X   All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
39. Rash et al. 2018 +/− 60 Certain    X All Immediate Variable (E-R) Individual
  1. NR, Indicates not reported
  2. *Indicates studies that used a “priming” technique where initial magnitude of drawing a winning prize card was higher followed by a lower magnitude, within the same group
  3. a,bIndicates studies where one group was exposed to two distinct PB-CM interventions
  4. 1,2Indicates studies where two groups were used, where each group received a distinct PB-CM interventions