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Table. 3 Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis of factors associated with EMS-calling among PWUD in Vancouver, British Columbia (n = 540)

From: A drug-related Good Samaritan Law and calling emergency medical services for drug overdoses in a Canadian setting

Characteristic Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p value
Age
Per year older 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 0.004 1.02 (1.00–1.03) 0.090
White (vs. non-white) 1.02 (0.73–1.44) 0.897 1.09 (0.72–1.63) 0.690
Male (vs. non-male) 0.88 (0.61–1.27) 0.493 0.91 (0.58–1.42) 0.683
 < Secondary school education 0.91 (0.64–1.27) 0.570 0.85 (0.56–1.27) 0.424
DTES residencya 1.93 (1.36–2.74)  < 0.001 1.96 (1.23–3.13) 0.005
Place of residencea
Homeless 0.80 (0.50–1.27) 0.347 0.71 (0.38–1.31) 0.278
Single room occupancy 0.81 (0.54–1.21) 0.310 0.51 (0.30–0.86) 0.013
Other (e.g., apartment, house, no fixed address) Reference   Reference
Ever incarcerated 1.44 (0.89–2.36) 0.140 1.14 (0.63–2.06) 0.666
Ever had a negative police encounterb 1.00 (0.70–1.44) 0.979 0.93 (0.60–1.45) 0.764
Ever administered naloxonea
Did not administer Reference Reference
One or two times 1.60 (1.06–2.42) 0.026 1.50 (0.94–2.43) 0.093
Three or more 1.80 (1.09–3.01) 0.023 2.00 (1.08–3.74) 0.029
Witnessed a known person overdoseac 1.20 (0.85–1.69) 0.299 1.08 (0.71–1.65) 0.714
Ever experienced an overdosea 1.09 (0.75–1.59) 0.637 0.85 (0.54–1.34) 0.498
Involved in the sex tradead 1.18 (0.71–1.96) 0.520 1.19 (0.62–2.30) 0.605
Involved in drug dealinga 1.12 (0.76–1.64) 0.577 1.06 (0.64–1.76) 0.815
At least daily drug use
Injection drug use 1.28 (0.91–1.80) 0.156 1.02 (0.63–1.67) 0.925
Heroine 1.14 (0.80–1.61) 0.464 1.11 (0.67–1.82) 0.689
Stimulantsef 1.17 (0.82–1.66) 0.390 1.11 (0.71–1.75) 0.651
Cannabis 0.68 (0.47–0.98) 0.037 0.72 (0.46–1.12) 0.144
Post-enactment period 0.99 (0.71–1.39) 0.971 0.81 (0.52–1.25) 0.344
  1. DTES Downtown Eastside, EMS Emergency medical services, PWUD People who use drugs
  2. Reference category = Did not call EMS
  3. aDenotes behaviours and events in the past six months
  4. bPolice encounter refers to being stopped, searched or detained by the police
  5. cA known person includes a sex partner or a friend
  6. dSex trade refers to exchanged sex for gifts, food, shelter, clothes, or money
  7. eInjection or non-injection drug use
  8. fStimulants refer to powder or crack cocaine or crystal methamphetamine