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Table 2 Bivariate factors associated with non-fatal overdose (ever, last year) among RACK study participants, Massachusetts, 2017–2019 (n = 469)

From: Prevalence and correlates of non-fatal overdose among people who use drugs: findings from rapid assessments in Massachusetts, 2017–2019

   Ever experienced non-fatal opioid overdose Last year non-fatal opioid overdose
Variables Comparison ORa (95% CIb) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Gender Female vs male 1.02 (0.70–1.51) 0.904 1.04 (0.70–1.53) 0.857
Race Hispanic vs NHc other 0.67 (0.29–1.56) 0.448 0.74 (0.33–1.7) 0.569
  NH black vs NH other 0.50 (0.18–1.37) 0.111 0.74 (0.27–2.04) 0.689
  NH white vs NH other 1.08 (0.48–2.41) 0.048 0.86 (0.40–1.88) 0.813
Age 30–45 years vs > 45 years 0.85 (0.53–1.36) 0.588 0.94 (0.59–1.48) 0.371
  Less than 30 years vs > 45 years 0.76 (0.44–1.29)   0.70 (0.41–1.20)  
Education High school or more vs less than high school 1.01 (0.67–1.53) 0.955 0.84 (0.56–1.27) 0.416
Employment Employed vs unemployed 1.10 (0.75–1.62) 0.622 1.12 (0.76–1.64) 0.574
Housing Housed vs not housed 1.14 (0.76–1.71) 0.521 1.35 (0.91–2.01) 0.142
Insurance Public vs other 2.07 (0.96–4.46) 0.063 1.84 (0.77–4.43) 0.172
Traded sex for money* Yes vs no 1.70 (1.06–2.72) 0.028 1.46 (0.93–2.31) 0.104
Substance use in the last 30 days
Crack Yes vs no 1.25 (0.86–1.83) 0.246 1.32 (0.90–1.93) 0.162
Cocaine Yes vs no 1.04 (0.71–1.54) 0.832 1.34 (0.90–2.00) 0.148
Methadone Yes vs no 1.35 (0.85–2.12) 0.201 0.68 (0.43–1.08) 0.104
Buprenorphine (Rxd) Yes vs no 1.67 (1.08–2.59) 0.022 1.42 (0.94–2.16) 0.095
Buprenorphine (non-Rx) Yes vs no 2.02 (1.02–3.97) 0.043 2.00 (1.11–3.62) 0.021
Amphetamines Yes vs no 2.02 (0.93–4.37) 0.075 1.60 (0.82–3.12) 0.165
Benzodiazepine Yes vs no 1.82 (1.17–2.84) 0.008 1.59 (1.05–2.40) 0.029
Fentanyl Yes vs no 3.03 (2.03–4.52)  < 0.001 2.28 (1.56–3.35)  < 0.001
Heroin Yes vs no 2.31 (1.56–3.41)  < 0.001 2.78 (1.82–4.26)  < 0.001
Marijuana Yes vs no 0.60 (0.41–0.88) 0.009 0.75 (0.51–1.10) 0.147
Pain medication Yes vs no 0.73 (0.44–1.22) 0.231 0.85 (0.50–1.45) 0.559
Route of substance use
Oral Yes vs no 1.29 (0.86–1.94) 0.222 1.76 (1.18–2.62) 0.005
Smoke Yes vs no 1.06 (0.72–1.55) 0.773 1.29 (0.88–1.90) 0.190
Snort Yes vs no 0.55 (0.37–0.80) 0.002 0.72 (0.49–1.06) 0.093
Inject Yes vs no 5.14 (3.43–7.70)  < 0.001 3.26 (2.15–4.96)  < 0.001
Snort or inject Yes vs no 2.88 (1.67–4.99)  < 0.001 2.73 (1.41–5.28) 0.003
Naloxone knowledge and access
Do you know what naloxone/Narcan is? Yes vs no 2.00 (0.66–6.05) 0.22 1.98 (0.54–7.3) 0.304
Do you currently have naloxone/Narcan kit with you? Yes vs no 1.91 (1.30–2.80) 0.001 1.41 (0.95–2.08) 0.091
Have you ever been trained to use naloxone/Narcan? Yes vs no 1.89 (1.24–2.89) 0.003 1.27 (0.82–1.97) 0.282
Do you know where to get naloxone/Narcan? Yes vs no 2.87 (1.56–5.30) 0.001 1.65 (0.85–3.21) 0.141
Around here, how easy would you say it is to get naloxone/Narcan to take home with you? Easy/extremely easy vs neutral/difficult/extremely difficult 0.58 (0.34–1.00) 0.048 1.23 (0.72–2.10) 0.445
  1. *Variable not assessed in first site (Lowell) hence not included in multivariable analyses
  2. aOR: odds ratio
  3. bCI confidence interval
  4. cNH non-Hispanic
  5. dRx prescription