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Table 3 Factors independently associated with ever overdose among RACK study participants, Massachusetts, 2017–2019

From: Prevalence and correlates of non-fatal overdose among people who use drugs: findings from rapid assessments in Massachusetts, 2017–2019

Variable Comparison aORa 95% CIb p-value
Gender Female vs male (ref) 0.82 0.51–1.31 0.400
Race Hispanic vs NHc white (ref) 0.63 0.4–0.99 0.045
  NH other vs NH white (ref) 1.11 0.42–2.92 0.828
  NH black vs NH white (ref) 0.60 0.40–0.91 0.016
Age Less than 30 years vs more than 45 years (ref) 0.64 0.40–1.00 0.051
  30–45 years vs more than 45 years (ref) 0.74 0.49–1.13 0.165
Education High school or more vs less than HS (ref) 0.94 0.62–1.45 0.793
Have naloxone/Narcan Yes vs no (ref) 1.49 0.85–2.60 0.168
Drug use route: snort or inject Yes vs no (ref) 1.72 0.98–3.02 0.058
Substance use in the last 30-days
Alcohol Yes vs no (ref) 0.94 0.62–1.43 0.781
Rxd Buprenorphine Yes vs no (ref) 1.36 0.91–2.04 0.129
Non-Rx Buprenorphine Yes vs no (ref) 1.94 1.24–3.02 0.004
Amphetamine Yes vs no (ref) 1.42 0.69–2.89 0.338
Benzodiazepine Yes vs no (ref) 1.49 1.00–2.23 0.052
Fentanyl Yes vs no (ref) 2.44 1.58–3.77  < .0001
Heroin Yes vs no (ref) 1.40 0.88–2.21 0.153
Marijuana Yes vs no (ref) 0.57 0.33–0.98 0.042
  1. aaOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. bCI confidence interval
  3. cNH non-Hispanic
  4. dRx prescription