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Table 4 Factors independently associated with past year overdose among RACK study participants, Massachusetts, 2017–2019

From: Prevalence and correlates of non-fatal overdose among people who use drugs: findings from rapid assessments in Massachusetts, 2017–2019

Variable   aORa 95% CIb p-value
Gender Female vs male (ref) 1.01 0.74–1.37 0.955
Race Hispanic vs NHc white (ref) 0.54 0.31–0.92 0.024
  NH other vs NH white (ref) 0.79 0.47–1.34 0.378
  NH black vs NH white (ref) 1.07 0.90–1.28 0.460
Age Less than 30 years vs more than 45 years (ref) 1.31 0.67–2.55 0.435
  30–45 years vs more than 45 years (ref) 1.01 0.48–2.13 0.974
Education High school or more vs less than HS (ref) 0.88 0.45–1.72 0.701
Housed Yes vs no (ref) 0.98 0.68–1.41 0.903
Have naloxone/Narcan Yes vs no (ref) 0.93 0.63–1.37 0.710
Drug use route: inject Yes vs no (ref) 2.63 1.57–4.4  < 0.001
Substance use in the last 30-days
Crack Yes vs no (ref) 1.17 0.84–1.63 0.356
Cocaine Yes vs no (ref) 1.06 0.63–1.76 0.83
Methadone Yes vs no (ref) 0.42 0.30–0.59  < .0001
Rxd Buprenorphine Yes vs no (ref) 1.13 0.78–1.64 0.515
Non-Rx Buprenorphine Yes vs no (ref) 2.10 1.23–3.56 0.006
Amphetamine Yes vs no (ref) 1.18 0.62–2.22 0.619
Benzodiazepine Yes vs no (ref) 1.64 1.14–2.37 0.008
Fentanyl Yes vs no (ref) 1.55 1.08–2.22 0.018
Heroin Yes vs no (ref) 1.91 1.05–3.46 0.033
Marijuana Yes vs no (ref) 0.73 0.39–1.37 0.323
  1. aaOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. bCI confidence interval
  3. cNH non-Hispanic
  4. dRx prescription