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Table 2 Sample characteristics by hospital use with Pearson chi-squared results (n = 432)

From: Drug use, homelessness and health: responding to the opioid overdose crisis with housing and harm reduction services

Characteristic Total n (%) Hospital use P value
Yes 183 (42.4%) No 249 (57.6%)
Housing unstable
Yes 240 (55.6) 124 (67.8) 116 (46.6) < 0.001
No 192 (44.4) 59 (32.2) 133 (53.4)  
Sex
Female 150 (34.7) 62 (33.9) 88 (35.3) 0.753
Male 282 (65.3) 121 (66.1) 161 (64.7)  
Ethnicity
Indigenous 141 (32.6) 66 (36.1) 75 (30.1) 0.193
Non-Indigenous 291 (67.4) 117 (63.9) 174 (69.9)  
Age, in years (range)* 37.4 (16–68) 36.3 38.2 0.117
Location
Medicine hat or red deer 224 (51.9) 98 (53.6) 139 (55.8) 0.054
Calgary 208 (48.1) 85 (46.4) 110 (44.2)  
Drug use characteristics     
Had an overdose
Yes 137 (31.7) 89 (48.6) 48 (19.3) < 0.001
No 295 (68.3) 94 (51.4) 201 (80.7)  
How often: polydrug use
2–3×/Week or more 233 (53.9) 114 (62.3) 119 (47.8) 0.003
2–4×/Month or less 199 (46.1) 69 (37.7) 130 (52.2)  
How often: heavily influenced by drugs
Weekly or daily 333 (77.1) 152 (83.1) 181 (72.7) 0.011
Monthly or less 99 (22.9) 31 (16.9) 68 (27.3)  
How often: irresistible longing to use
Weekly or daily 261 (60.4) 121 (66.1) 140 (56.2) 0.038
Monthly or less 171 (39.6) 62 (33.9) 109 (43.8)  
How often: unable to stop use
Weekly or daily 248 (57.4) 113 (61.7) 135 (54.2) 0.118
Monthly or less 184 (42.6) 70 (38.3) 114 (45.8)  
How often: neglected tasks due to use
Weekly or daily 273 (63.2) 140 (76.5) 133 (53.4) < 0.001
Monthly or less 159 (36.8) 43 (23.5) 116 (46.6)  
How often: need to use in morning
Weekly or daily 291 (67.4) 137 (74.9) 154 (61.8) 0.004
Monthly or less 141 (32.6) 46 (25.1) 95 (38.2)  
How often: feel guilty due to drug use
Weekly or daily 313 (72.5) 143 (78.1) 170 (68.3) 0.023
Monthly or less 119 (27.5) 40 (21.9) 79 (31.7)  
Hurt due to use
Yes 359 (83.1) 160 (87.4) 199 (79.9) 0.040
No 73 (16.9) 23 (12.6) 50 (20.1)  
Others worry due to use
Yes 370 (85.6) 167 (91.3) 203 (81.5) 0.040
No 62 (14.4) 16 (8.7) 46 (18.5)  
Health characteristics     
Diagnosed with addiction or mental health disorder
Yes 351 (81.2) 162 (88.5) 189 (75.9) 0.001
No 81 (18.8) 21 (11.5) 60 (24.1)  
Experience of receiving services     
Inadequate access
Yes 238 (55.1) 113 (61.7) 125 (50.2) 0.017
No 194 (44.9) 70 (38.3) 124 (49.8)  
Inadequate amount
Yes 246 (56.9) 109 (59.6) 137 (55.0) 0.346
No 186 (43.1) 74 (40.4) 112 (45.0)  
  1. *P-value for age is a two-tailed t-test