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Table 1 Median and Mean rank for the Initial Health messages on all 3 constructs combined Accuracy, Persuasiveness and Clarity

From: Development and testing of relative risk-based health messages for electronic cigarette products

Relative risk health messages Percentiles 50th median [25th-75th] Mean rank
RRM1. [EC]a are likely to be 95% less harmful than smoking 3.83 [2.58–4.67] 13.83
RRM2. [EC] reduce smoking related health risks by 95% 3.83 [2.83–4.08] 11.33
RRM3. Smoking is 95% more harmful than vaping 2.5 [1.58–3.67] 3.92
RRM4. No product is completely safe but use of this product is much less harmful than smoking 3.67 [3–4.17] 12.92
RRM5. Use of this product is much less harmful than smoking1 4.17 [3–4.75] 16.92
RRM6. No tobacco related product is safe but this product presents substantially lower risks to health than cigarettes 3.33 [3–3.75] 9.58
RRM7. This product presents substantially lower risks to health than cigarettes5 4.17 [3.58–4.33] 18.08
RRM8. [Completely] switching to [EC] reduces your health risks2 4 [3.5–4.33] 15.42
RRM9. [Completely] switching to [EC] reduces your cancer risk 3.83 [3.5–4.42] 15.33
RRM10. Switching to e-cigarettes improves your health 3.17 [2.5–3.67] 5
RRM11. [Completely] switching to [EC] lowers your risk of smoking related diseases6 4.17 [3.67–4.33] 17.42
RRM12. This product is a safer alternative to smoking3 4.33 [3.33–5] 20.33
RRM13. This product is a safer alternative for smokers 4.33 [3.33–5] 20.33
RRM14. Switching to [EC] reduces damage to your lungs 3.33 [3–4.5] 13.67
RRM15. Switching to [EC] reduces your chances of developing cancer 3.83 [3.58–4] 12.92
RRM16. [EC] contain no tar, the toxic component of smoke 4 [3.42–4.33] 14.92
RRM17. [EC] contain far fewer toxins than tobacco cigarettes 3.67 [3.5–4.33] 13.17
RRM18. [EC] reduce harmful toxin exposure to those around you 3.67 [3.33–3.75] 12.17
RRM19. [EC] reduce exposure to second-hand smoke 3.67 [3–4] 11.75
RRM20 Completely switching to [EC] is a healthier alternative to smoking7 3.5 [2.5–4.42] 19.75
RRM21 It is recommended that smokers should switch to [EC] 8 3.5 [2.5–4.42] 11.08
RRM22 Many smokers who switch to e-cigarettes report improved health8 3.67 [2.92–4.17] 12.75
RRM23 Like other smokers, if you switch to e-cigarettes you will experience improved health 3.67 [2–4] 9
RRM24 Using an e-cigarette improves your chances of quitting4 3.83 [3.25–4.33] 14.33
RRM25. Using an [EC] doubles your chances of quitting smoking8 3.33 [3.17–4.17] 11.50
RRM26. Using an [EC] reduces cravings for cigarettes 3.67 [3.25–4.08] 13.58
  1. a[EC] e-cigarettes featured in full; Bold font indicate selected messages (n = 8) further evaluated in this second phase study (N = 983); Friedman test x2(25, n = 6) = 44.02, p = .011 found a significant difference on all 3 constructs combined; Friedman test x2(25, n = 8) = 43.89 p = .011 also revealed the top 8 most recommended messages indicated by lower case superscript numbered 1–8; For messages to abandon, Friedman test x2(25, n = 8) = 35.14, p = .086 found not significant differences but individual experts’ comments and advice on messages to “abandon” vis-à-vis the complexity and length of messages were taken into consideration during the selection process