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Table 2 International outbreak details

From: Is your syringe services program cost-saving to society? A methodological case study

International outbreaks
Location Outbreak year Pre-outbreak case rates Peak outbreak rate Excess cases Precipitating conditions
Athens, Greece 2011 10–20 HIV cases/year 525 cases over a 1-year period 505–515 cases Economic recession; homelessness; low HIV prevention services
Bucharest, Romania 2011 5–12 HIV cases/year 308 cases/year 296–303 cases Poverty; increase in synthetic drug use
Dublin, Ireland 2014 10–20 HIV cases/year 57 cases over 2-year period 37–47 cases Economic recession; homelessness; increase in daily “snow blow” injections
Tel Aviv, Israel 2012 ~ 40 HIV cases/year 73 cases over 1-year period ~ 33 cases Homelessness; increase in synthetic cathinone use
Luxembourg 2013 < 4 HIV cases/year 68 cases over 4-year period 64 cases Economic precariousness; homelessness; increase in cocaine use and decrease in heroin supply
Glasgow, Scotland 2015 ~ 10 HIV cases/year 48 cases over a 1-year period 38 cases Austerity; homelessness; increase in cocaine injecting
Southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada 2016 < 1 HIV case/year 16 cases over 2-year period 15 cases Poverty; homelessness; increase hydromorphone use