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Table 3 US-based outbreak details

From: Is your syringe services program cost-saving to society? A methodological case study

US based outbreaks
Location Outbreak year Pre-outbreak case rates Peak outbreak rate Excess cases Precipitating conditions
Cabell County, West Virginia 2019 ~ 2 HIV cases/year 82 cases over a 1-year period 80 cases Low HIV prevention services, lack of access to HIV testing
Lowell, Massachusetts 2016 ~ 0 HIV cases/year 5 cases over a 1-year period 5 cases Homelessness, fentanyl injection, low HIV prevention services
Northern Kentucky/Hamilton County, Ohio 2017–2018 < 20 HIV case/year 157 cases over a 2 month period 137 cases Increase in injection drug use starting in 2017
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 2018 ~ 33 HIV cases/year 71 cases over a 1-year period 38 cases Incarceration, increase fentanyl injection
Portland, Oregon 2019 ~ 12 HIV cases/year 42 cases over a 1-year period 30 cases Methamphetamine injection
Seattle, Washington 2018 ~ 17 HIV cases/year 52 cases over a 1-year period 35 cases Homelessness; heroin and methamphetamine injection in combination; sex exchange among females
Scott County Indiana, USA 2014 < 1 HIV cases/year 227 cases over 3-year period 226 cases Low employment rate; prescription oxymorphone; no HIV prevention services