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Table 2 Injecting drug use history and practices among PWID in Kigali, Rwanda, N:307

From: Injection drug use practices and HIV infection among people who inject drugs in Kigali, Rwanda: a cross-sectional study

Variable N % Female
N (%)
Male
N (%)
p value
First drug injection      
Age at first injection      
 Less than 18 53 17.3 5 (8.9) 48 (19.1) 0.187
 18–24 132 43 27 (48.2) 105 (41.8)  
 > 25 122 39.7 24 (42.9) 98 (39.1)  
Drug injected the first time      
 Heroin 304 99.1 55 (98.2) 249 (99.2) 0.454
 Cocaine 2 0.6 1 (1.8) 1 (0.4)  
 Methamphetamine 1 0.3 0 (0) 1 (0.4)  
Person who performed the injection the first time      
 Self 134 43.7 21 (37.5) 113 (45.1) 0.0001
 Friend 146 47.5 17 (30.4) 129 (51.4)  
 Sex partner 20 6.5 16 (28.6) 4 (1.6)  
 Other 7 2.3 2 (3.5) 5 (1.9)  
Needle sharing the first time      
 No 234 76.2 43 (76.8) 191 (76.1) 0.913
 Yes 73 23.8 13 (23.2) 60 (23.9)  
Source of drug the first time      
 Bought them from someone 259 84.4 38 (67.8) 221 (88.1) 0.001
 Received them for free 41 13.4 16 (28.6) 25 (9.9)  
 Traded them for sex 5 1.6 2 (3.6) 3 (1.2)  
 Refused to answer 2 0.6 0 (0) 2 (0.8)  
Injecting drug history      
Duration of drug injection*      
 Less than 3 129 42.3 32 (58.2) 96 (38.6) 0.007
 4–5 years 105 34.4 18 (32.7) 87 (34.9)  
 Over 5 71 23.3 5 (9.1) 66 (26.5)  
Needle sharing history      
 Never shared needles 27 8.8 6 (10.7) 21 (8.4) 0.575
 Ever shared needles 280 91.2 50 (89.3) 230 (91.6)  
Used a Drug combination      
 No 212 69.5 45 (83.3) 167 (66.5) 0.015
 Yes 93 30.5 9 (16.7) 84 (33.5)  
Needle sharing in the previous six months      
 Never 213 69.4 39 (69.6) 174 (69.4) 0.285
 Rarely 60 19.5 8 (14.3) 52 (20.7)  
 Half of the time or more 34 11.1 9 (16.1) 25 (9.9)  
Needle reuse in the previous six months      
 Never 204 66.5 45 (80.4) 159 (63.4) 0.05
 Rarely 75 24.4 8 (14.3) 67 (26.7)  
 Half of the time or more 28 9.1 3 (5.3) 25 (9.9)  
Selling sex for Drugs in the previous six months*      
 No 204 68.5 22 (39.3) 182 (75.2) 0.0001
 Yes 94 31.5 34 (60.7) 60 (24.8)  
Need and access to substance use disorders treatment programs      
Tried to reduce or quit drug consumption in the previous 6 months***      
 No 122 39.9 23 (41.1) 99 (39.6) 0.839
 Yes 184 60.1 33 (58.9) 151 (60.4)  
Aware of any Drug addiction treatment programs      
 No 205 66.7 38 (67.9) 167 (66.6) 0.285
 Yes 45 14.7 11 (19.6) 34 (13.5)  
 Don't know 57 18.6 7 (12.5) 50 (19.9)  
Drug Addiction treatment in the previous six months****      
 No 290 95.4 54 (96.4) 236 (95.2) 0.683
 Yes 14 4.6 2 (3.6) 12 (4..8)  
Unable to access Drug Addiction treatment in the previous six months      
 No 259 84.4 49 (87.5) 210 (83.7) 0.457
 Yes 48 15.6 7 (12.5) 41 (16.3)  
Ever enrolled in a Drug Addiction treatment program      
 Never been treated 263 85.7 51 (91.0) 212 (84.5) 0.395
 Ever been treated 21 6.8 3 (5.4) 18 (7.2)  
 Refused to answer 23 7.5 2 (3.6) 21 (8.3)  
  1. Bold values are for variables that were found to be statistically significantly different between male and female PWID
  2. * Data missing for n=2 ; ** Data missing for n=9 ; *** Data missing for n=1 ; **** Data missing for n=3