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Table 3 Patient characteristics by number of self-directed discharges in 2017

From: Acute pain and self-directed discharge among hospitalized patients with opioid-related diagnoses: a cohort study

  Number of times self-discharging in 2017 Cochran-armitage trend test
None 1 2–5 6+
N (%) 4922 (83.75%) 808 (13.75%) 137 (2.33%) 10 (0.17%)  
White 2720 (55.31%) 504 (62.45%) 95 (69.34%) 9 (90%)  
Black 1483 (30.15%) 176 (21.81%) 20 (14.60%) 1 (10%)  
Race othera 392 (7.97%) 82 (10.16%) 11 (8.03%) 0  
Race unknown 324 (6.59%) 45 (5.58%) 11 (8.03%) 0  
Patient is of Hispanic/Latin descent 370 (7.52) 72 (8.91) 8 (5.84) 0  
Male 2691 (54.68%) 505 (62.50%) 89 (64.96%) 6 (60.00%)  
Age (average, Std) 42.00 (12.35) 38.53 (11.08) 39.71 (10.44) 40.70 (12.05)  
Everb homelessc 361 (7.34%) 93 (11.51%) 37 (27.01%) 6 (60%) < .0001
Ever skin and soft tissue infection 660 (13.41%) 226 (27.97%) 68 (49.64%) 9 (90%) < .0001
Ever septicemia or bacteremia infection 612 (12.44%) 143 (17.70%) 55 (40.15%) 7 (70%) < .0001
Ever bone, joint, or vascular infection 234 (4.76%) 63 (7.80%) 32 (23.36%) 7 (70%) < .0001
Ever any polysubstance use 2139 (43.47%) 493 (61.01%) 101 (73.72%) 10 (100%) < .0001
Ever depression 2188 (44.45) 328 (40.59) 83 (60.58) 10 (100) < .0001
Ever cocaine use 1347 (27.37%) 339 (41.96%) 85 (62.04%) 10 (100%) < .0001
Ever nicotine dependent 3151 (64.04%) 604 (74.75%) 131 (95.62%) 10 (100%) < .0001
Charges for all 2017 admissions (average, Std) $ 103,625 ($162,150) $ 83,809 ($149,493) $ 245,596 ($304,555) $ 426,912 ($276,882)  
  1. Data are expressed as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated
  2. aThe race indicator is also missing for four people
  3. bEver measures refer to the presence of the indicator during at least one patient admission in 2017
  4. cAdditional information about indicators is provide in Table 1. The full list of associated ICD-10 codes is provided in Additional file 1