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Table 1 Officers’ perceived control over decisions to arrest and confiscate in drug-related encounters (1–6 Likert scale) (N = 259)

From: Police discretion in encounters with people who use drugs: operationalizing the theory of planned behavior

Enforcement type Mean (SD) No control (1) Lack of control (1–3) Some control (4–6) Total Control (6)
Control over arrest 4.42 (1.56) 16 (6%) 79 (30%) 179 (69%) 90 (35%)
Control over confiscation 3.96 (1.79) 38 (13%) 114 (44%) 145 (56%) 79 (31%)
Reported discretionary behaviors concerning drug-related arrests and confiscation (1–6 Likert scale) (N = 173)
Discretionary behavior Mean (SD) Always (1) Inclined towards (1–3) Inclined against (4–6) Never (6)
Confiscate naloxone 5.50 (1.22) 6 (3%) 16 (9%) 157 (91%) 140 (81%)
Confiscate syringes 2.35 (1.72) 81 (47%) 139 (80%) 34 (20%) 22 (13%)
Not arrest for syringe poss 3.20 (1.75) 44 (25%) 108 (62%) 65 (38%) 27 (16%)
Not arrest for drug poss 3.87 (1.68) 21 (12%) 78 (45%) 95 (55%) 40 (23%)
Refer to treatment/nalox 2.94 (1.76) 44 (25%) 123 (71%) 50 (29%) 29 (17%)