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Table 3 Approval of treatment as an alternative to arrest and beliefs about addiction and treatment (1–6 Likert scale) (N = 173)

From: Police discretion in encounters with people who use drugs: operationalizing the theory of planned behavior

  Mean (SD) Very likely (1) Likely (1–3) Unlikely (4–6) Not at all likely (6)
Supervisors would approve of referrals 2.64 (1.65) 60 (35%) 130 (75%) 43 (25%) 18 (10%)
Coworkers would approve of referrals 2.67 (1.58) 50 (29%) 131 (76%) 42 (24%) 17 (10%)
Friends/neighbors would approve of referrals 2.67 (1.53) 49 (28%) 128 (74%) 45 (26%) 12 (7%)
Referrals to treatment reduce future arrests 2.83 (1.30) 29 (17%) 134 (77%) 39 (23%) 10 (6%)
Referrals to treatment increase trust in police 2.69 (1.32) 36 (21%) 139 (80%) 34 (20%) 8 (5%)
  Mean (SD) Strongly agree (1) Agree (1–3) Disagree (4–6) Strongly disagree (6)
People who become addicted to opioids are to blame for their own condition 3.22 (1.30) 15 (9%) 112 (65%) 61 (35%) 12 (7%)
People who are addicted to opioids won’t hesitate to lie when it benefits their addiction 2.35 (1.53) 66 (38%) 138 (80%) 35 (20%) 11 (6%)
I would worry about a person in recovery for opioid addiction taking care of my family’ s children for a few hours 2.66 (1.67) 65 (38%) 126 (73%) 47 (27%) 17 (10%)
People become addicted to opioids because they lack the willpower to stop before it’s too late 3.76 (1.55) 16 (9%) 81 (47%) 92 (53%) 29 (17%)
Opioid/heroin users will use more opioids/heroin if they know they have access to naloxone 3.44 (1.57) 22 (13%) 96 (55%) 77 (45%) 25 (14%)
Harm reduction services that distribute items such as syringes and naloxone condone a person’s addiction 3.83 (1.63) 18 (10%) 76 (44%) 97 (56%) 39 (23%)
There should be a limit on the number of times one person receives naloxone to reverse an overdose 4.39 (1.75) 16 (9%) 56 (32%) 117 (68%) 76 (44%)
Everyone at risk of experiencing or witnessing an overdose should be given a supply of naloxone 2.56 (1.54) 57 (33%) 135 (78%) 38 (22%) 12 (7%)
People can successfully overcome an opioid addiction 2.14 (1.23 65 (38%) 155 (90%) 17 (10%) 6 (3%)
An officer who completed treatment for addiction to prescription opioid pills could be trusted to return to duty 2.90 (1.22) 22 (13%) 127 (73%) 46 (27%) 4 (2%)