Skip to main content

Table 1 Participant characteristics in the total sample and by network characteristics (N = 575)

From: Naloxone protection, social support, network characteristics, and overdose experiences among a cohort of people who use illicit opioids in New York City

  N (%) in total samplea N (%) with < 5 members in networkb PR (95% CI) for association with < 5 members in networkc N (%) with no support from using network membersd PR (95% CI) for association with no support from using networke
Age
Less than 50 years of age 255 (44.3) 68 (26.8) Ref 103 (40.6) Ref
50 years of age or older 321 (55.7) 63 (19.6) 0.73 (0.54, 0.99) 156 (48.8) 1.20 (1.00, 1.45)
Race/ethnicity
Non-Hispanic White 106 (18.4) 26 (24.8) Ref 46 (43.4) Ref
Non-Hispanic Black 217 (37.7) 47 (21.7) 0.87 (0.58, 1.33) 108 (49.8) 1.15 (0.89, 1.48)
Hispanic/Latinx 229 (39.8) 53 (23.1) 0.93 (0.62, 1.41) 97 (42.7) 0.98 (0.76, 1.28)
Other 19 (3.30) 4 (21.0) 0.85 (0.33, 2.16) 6 (31.6) 0.73 (0.36, 1.46)
Sex
Female 193 (33.5) 43 (22.5) Ref 90 (27.1) Ref
Male 379 (65.8) 87 (23.0) 1.02 (0.74, 1.41) 167 (44.3) 0.94 (0.78, 1.13)
Employment status
Unemployed 445 (77.3) 99 (22.3) Ref 195 (44.0) Ref
Employed 124 (21.5) 30 (24.2) 1.08 (0.76, 1.55) 62 (50.0) 1.14 (0.92, 1.39)
Currently homeless
No 402 (69.9) 90 (22.4) Ref 184 (45.9) Ref
Yes 173 (30.1) 41 (23.7) 1.06 (0.76, 1.46) 75 (43.4) 0.76 (0.63, 0.93)
Ever incarcerated
No 114 (19.8) 33 (29.0) Ref 63 (55.8) Ref
Yes 462 (80.2) 98 (21.3) 0.73 (0.52, 1.03) 196 (42.5) 0.59 (0.39, 0.89)
Currently lives with romantic partner
No 426 (74.1) 103 (24.2) Ref 192 (45.3) Ref
Yes 149 (25.9) 28 (18.8) 0.78 (0.53, 1.13) 67 (44.7) 0.99 (0.80, 1.21)
Currently lives with romantic partner who uses opioids
No 473 (82.3) 115 (24.3) Ref 215 (45.6) Ref
Yes 102 (17.7) 16 (15.7) 0.64 (0.40, 1.04) 44 (42.7) 0.94 (0.73, 1.20)
Currently lives with anyone
No 140 (24.4) 30 (21.4) Ref 67 (48.2) Ref
Yes 434 (75.6) 101 (23.3 1.09 (0.76, 1.56) 192 (44.2) 0.92 (0.75, 1.12)
Currently lives with anyone who uses opioids
No 399 (72.0) 98 (24.6) Ref 186 (46.8) Ref
Yes 155 (28.0) 27 (17.4) 0.71 (0.48, 1.04) 64 (41.0) 0.88 (0.70, 1.09)
Current living situation
Lives alone 140 (25.3) 30 (21.4) Ref 67 (48.2) Ref
Not with anyone who uses opioids 259 (46.8) 68 (26.2) 1.22 (0.84, 1.79) 119 (46.1) 0.96 (0.77, 1.19)
Someone who uses opioids 155 (28.0) 27 (17.4) 0.81 (0.51, 1.30) 64 (41.0) 0.85 (0.66, 1.10)
Length of opioid use history
15 years of less 154 (16.8) 46 (30.1) Ref 71 (46.4) Ref
16–26 years 136 (23.6) 30 (22.1) 0.73 (0.49, 1.09) 52 (38.2) 0.82 (0.63, 1.08)
27–35 years27–35 years 147 (25.6) 32 (21.8) 0.72 (0.49, 1.07) 72 (49.0) 1.06 (0.83, 1.34)
36 years or longer 137 (23.8) 23 (16.8) 0.56 (0.36, 0.87) 64 (47.1) 1.01 (0.79, 1.30)
OUD severity
Mild/moderate 95 (16.5) 24 (25.3) Ref 56 (59.0) Ref
Severe 441 (76.6) 93 (21.1) 0.84 (0.57, 1.24) 186 (42.4) 0.72 (0.59, 0.88)
Ever injected heroin
No 365 (63.4) 85 (23.3) Ref 175 (48.2) Ref
Yes 196 (34.0) 39 (20.0) 0.86 (0.61, 1.20) 75 (38.3) 0.80 (0.64, 0.98)
Cocaine use in past 30 days
No 288 (50.0) 77 (26.7) Ref 139 (48.4) Ref
Yes 288 (50.0) 54 (18.8) 0.70 (0.52, 0.96) 120 (41.8) 0.86 (0.72, 1.04)
Crack use in past 30 days
No 415 (72.0) 95 (23.0) Ref 197 (47.6) Ref
Yes 161 (28.0) 26 (22.4) 0.97 (0.70, 1.37) 62 (38.8) 0.81 (0.65, 1.01)
Marijuana use in past 30 days
No 358 (62.2) 84 (23.5) Ref 170 (47.6) Ref
Yes 218 (37.8) 47 (21.6) 0.92 (0.67, 1.26) 89 (41.1) 0.86 (0.71, 1.04)
Benzodiazepine use in past 30 days
No 387 (67.2) 88 (22.8) Ref 178 (46.2) Ref
Yes 189 (32.8) 43 (22.8) 1.00 (0.72, 1.38) 81 (42.9) 0.93 (0.76, 1.13)
Fentanyl detected in urine analysis
No 268 (46.5) 64 (23.9) Ref 135 (50.6) Ref
Yes 306 (53.1) 66 (21.6) 0.90 (0.67, 1.23) 123 (40.3) 0.80 (0.66, 0.96)
Oxycodone detected in urine analysis
No 541 (93.9) 123 (22.8) Ref 247 (45.7) Ref
Yes 33 (5.7) 7 (21.2) 0.93 (0.47, 1.83) 11 (34.4) 0.75 (0.46, 1.22)
Heroin detected in urine analysis
No 79 (13.7) 17 (21.5) Ref 43 (55.1) Ref
Yes 495 (85.9) 113 (22.9) 1.06 (0.68, 1.67) 215 (43.5) 0.79 (0.63, 0.99)
Stigma (median ≥ 13)
No 278 (48.3) 53 (19.1) Ref 120 (43.2) Ref
Yes 280 (48.6) 68 (24.4) 1.27 (0.93, 1.76) 127 (45.5) 1.05 (0.88, 1.27)
PTSD
No 513 (89.1) 117 (22.8) Ref 232 (45.4) Ref
Yes 62 (10.8) 14 (22.6) 0.99 (0.61, 1.61) 27 (43.6) 0.96 (0.71, 1.29)
Omnibus mental health* 0.7 (0.25, 1.3)   Ref   Ref
1.02 (0.84, 1.24) 0.99 (0.87, 1.12)
Depression
No 264 (45.9) 62 (23.5) Ref 115 (43.6) Ref
Yes 69 (54.1) 69 (22.2) 0.94 (0.70, 1.28) 114 (46.4) 1.07 (0.89, 1.28)
Anxiety
No 314 (54.6) 70 (22.3) Ref 143 (45.5) Ref
Yes 216 (45.4) 61 (23.4) 1.05 (0.78, 1.42) 116 (44.6) 0.98 (0.82, 1.17)
Suicidality
No 546 (95.1) 125 (22.9) Ref 247 (45.2) Ref
Yes 28 (4.9) 6 (21.4) 0.94 (0.45, 1.94) 12 (44.4) 0.98 (0.64, 1.51)
SEP visits in past 3 months
No 347 (60.2) 88 (25.4) Ref 172 (49.7) Ref
Yes 170 (29.5) 30 (17.8) 0.70 (0.48, 1.02) 64 (17.9) 0.76 (0.51, 0.95)
Currently opioid treatment
No current treatment 254 (44.2) 71 (28.0) Ref 104 (41.1) Ref
Medication assisted treatment 321 (55.8) 60 (18.7) 0.67 (0.49, 0.90) 155 (48.3) 1.17 (0.98, 1.41)
Ever trained to administer naloxone
No 193 (33.5) 56 (29.0) Ref 95 (49.5) Ref
Yes 379 (65.8) 93 (19.3) 0.66 (0.49, 0.90) 163 (43.1) 0.87 (0.72, 1.05)
Administered naloxone in past 3 months
No 474 (82.3) 120 (25.4) Ref 227 (48.1) Ref
Yes 102 (17.7) 11 (10.8) 0.42 (0.24, 0.76) 32 (31.4) 0.65 (0.48, 0.88)
  1. aMay not sum to 575 due to missing values
  2. bN = 575; 5 members is the 25th percentile [131 (22.7%) with < 5 members; 444 (77.1%) with 5 + members]
  3. cCompared to 5 + Members
  4. dN = 575 [259 (45.0%) have no material or emotional support; 315 (54.7%) have at least one form of support]
  5. eCompared to those with at least one form of support
  6. *Median (IQR); scale is standardized