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Table 2 Participant characteristics in the total sample and by unprotected use and OD experience in past 30 days (N = 575)

From: Naloxone protection, social support, network characteristics, and overdose experiences among a cohort of people who use illicit opioids in New York City

  N (%) with unprotected use PR (95% CI) for association unprotected use N (%) with OD experience PR (95% CI) for association with OD experiencea
Age
Less than 50 years of age 146 (58.4) Ref 105 (41.3) Ref
50 Years of age or older 219 (68.6) 1.18 (1.03, 1.34) 80 (24.9) 0.60 (0.47, 0.77)
Race/ethnicity
Non-Hispanic White 59 (56.2) Ref 45 (42.9) Ref
Non-Hispanic Black 153 (71.2) 1.27 (1.05, 1.53) 58 (26.7) 0.62 (0.46, 0.85)
Hispanic/Latinx 139 (61.5) 1.09 (0.90, 1.33) 78 (34.1) 0.79 (0.60, 1.06)
Other 11 (61.1) 1.09 (0.72, 1.63) 3 (15.8) 0.37 (0.13, 1.07)
Sex
Female 117 (61.6) Ref 58 (30.2) Ref
Male 248 (66.1) 1.07 (0.94, 1.23) 123 (32.4) 1.07 (0.83, 1.39)
Employment status
Unemployed 289 (65.5) Ref 132 (29.7) Ref
Employed 70 (57.8) 0.88 (0.75, 1.04) 53 (42.7) 1.44 (1.12, 1.84)
Currently homeless
No 264 (66.7) Ref 133 (33.2) Ref
Yes 101 (58.4) 0.88 (0.76, 1.01) 52 (29.9) 0.90 (0.69, 1.18)
Ever incarcerated
No 74 (66.7) Ref 36 (31.6) Ref
Yes 291 (63.5) 0.95 (0.82, 1.11) 149 (32.3) 1.02 (0.76, 1.38)
Length of opioid use history
15 Years of less 89 (58.6) Ref 66 (42.9) Ref
16–26 years 88 (65.2) 1.11 (0.93, 1.34) 41 (30.2) 0.70 (0.51, 0.96)
27–35 years 92 (62.8) 1.07 (0.89, 1.29) 48 (32.6) 0.76 (0.57, 1.02)
36 years or longer 97 (71.3) 1.22 (1.03, 1.44) 30 (21.9) 0.51 (0.35, 0.74)
OUD severity
Mild/moderate 67 (72.0) Ref 14 (14.7) Ref
Severe 271 (62.2) 0.86 (0.74, 1.00) 159 (36.1) 2.45 (1.49, 4.04)
Ever injected heroin
No 255 (70.8) Ref 107 (29.3) Ref
Yes 98 (50.3) 0.71 (0.61, 0.83) 75 (38.5) 1.31 (1.03, 1.66)
Cocaine use in past 30 days
No 196 (68.8) Ref 82 (28.6) Ref
Yes 169 (59.5) 0.86 (0.76, 0.98) 103 (35.8) 1.25 (0.98, 1.59)
Crack use in past 30 days
No 265 (65.0) Ref 121 (29.2) Ref
Yes 100 (62.1) 0.96 (0.83, 1.10) 64 (39.8) 0.96 (0.83, 1.10)
Marijuana use in past 30 days
No 235 (66.2) Ref 96 (26.9) Ref
Yes 130 (60.8) 0.92 (0.80, 1.05) 89 (40.8) 1.52 (1.20, 1.92)
Benzodiazepine use in past 30 days
No 254 (66.5) Ref 105 (27.2) Ref
Yes 111 (59.4) 0.89 (0.78, 1.02) 80 (42.3) 1.56 (1.23, 1.96)
Fentanyl detected in urine analysis
No 184 (68.9) Ref 89 (33.2) Ref
Yes 179 (59.7) 0.86 (0.76, 0.98) 95 (31.2) 0.94 (0.74, 1.19)
Oxycodone detected in urine analysis
No 344 (63.9) Ref 172 (31.8) Ref
Yes 19 (65.5) 1.02 (0.78, 1.34) 12 (37.5) 1.18 (0.74, 1.88)
Heroin detected in urine analysis
No 49 (62.0) Ref 32 (40.5) Ref
Yes 314 (64.3) 1.04 (0.86, 1.25) 152 (30.8) 0.76 (0.56, 1.02)
Stigma (median ≥ 13)
No 167 (60.5) Ref 84 (30.3) Ref
Yes 189 (68.5) 1.13 (1.00, 1.28) 96 (34.3) 1.13 (0.89, 1.44)
PTSD
No 330 (65.0) Ref 161 (31.4) Ref
Yes 35 (57.4)   24 (38.7) 1.23 (0.88, 1.73)
Omnibus mental health*   Ref   Ref
0.95 (0.86, 1.04) 1.30 (1.14, 1.48)
Depression
No 172 (65.9) Ref 66 (24.9) Ref
Yes 193 (62.7) 0.95 (0.84, 1.08) 119 (38.4) 1.54 (1.20, 1.98)
Anxiety
No 210 (67.5) Ref 89 (28.2) Ref
Yes 155 (60.1) 0.89 (0.78, 1.01) 96 (36.9) 1.31 (1.03, 1.66)
Suicidality
No 349 (64.4) Ref 170 (31.1) Ref
Yes 16 (59.3) 0.92 (0.67, 1.27) 15 (53.6) 1.72 (1.19, 2.49)
SEP visits in past 3 months
No 251 (73.4) Ref 95 (27.4) Ref
Yes 80 (47.3) 0.64 (0.54, 0.76) 64 (37.6) 1.38 (1.06, 1.78)
Currently opioid treatment
No current treatment 161 (64.1) Ref 99 (39.1) Ref
Medication assisted treatment 204 (64.2) 1.00 (0.88, 1.13) 86 (26.7) 0.68 (0.54, 0.86)
Ever trained to administer naloxone
No 162 (85.3) Ref 51 (26.4) Ref
Yes 200 (53.3) 0.62 (0.56, 0.70) 132 (34.9) 1.32 (1.00, 1.74)
Administered naloxone in past 3 months
No 325 (69.3) Ref 135 (28.5) Ref
Yes 40 (40.0) 0.58 (0.45, 0.74) 50 (49.5) 1.74 (1.36, 2.22)
  1. aMay not sum to 575 due to missing values
  2. *Median (IQR); scale is standardized