Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between network and support factors and never protected with naloxone and a person to administer during opioid use events in past 30 days

From: Naloxone protection, social support, network characteristics, and overdose experiences among a cohort of people who use illicit opioids in New York City

  N (%) with no protection PR (95% CI) APR (95% CI)a
Network size (injecting)
More than 1 64 (43.8) Ref Ref
0 in Network 38 (69.1) 1.58 (1.22, 2.03) 1.61 (1.23, 2.11)
Network size (opioid-using)
More than 5 275 (62.5) Ref Ref
 < 5 in network 90 (69.8) 1.37 (0.90, 2.09) 1.14 (0.98, 1.31)
Network size (opioid using, excluding injectors)
More than 5 201 (71.3) Ref Ref
 < 5 in Network 62 (72.10 1.01 (0.87, 1.18) 1.03 (0.88, 1.21)
Non-using network gave place to stay in past 3 months
No 248 (65.1) Ref Ref
Yes 117 (63.2) 0.97 (0.85, 1.11) 1.08 (0.93, 1.24)
Non-using network gave money in past 3 months
No 133 (62.7) Ref Ref
Yes 229 (64.9) 1.03 (0.91, 1.18) 1.07 (0.93, 1.22)
Non-using network gave emotional support in past 3 months
No 80 (61.1) Ref Ref
Yes 281 (65.2) 1.06 (0.92, 1.24) 1.17 (0.99, 1.38)
Using network gave place to stay in past 3 months
No 267 (65.4) Ref Ref
Yes 98 (61.2) 0.94 (0.81, 1.08) 1.03 (0.88, 1.20)
Using network gave money in past 3 months
No 211 (68.5) Ref Ref
Yes 154 (59.5) 0.87 (0.76, 0.98) 0.85 (0.75, 0.98)
Using network gave emotional support in past 3 months
No 144 (72.0) Ref Ref
Yes 221 (60.2) 0.84 (0.74, 0.94) 0.87 (0.76, 0.99)
Support from networks
No support 41 (69.5) Ref Ref
At least one form of support from using 16 (48.5) 0.70 (0.47, 1.03) 0.70 (0.47, 1.04)
At least one form of support from non-using 174 (62.6) 0.98 (0.80, 1.19) 1.00 (0.82, 1.24)
At least one from of support from both 132 (68.0) 0.90 (0.74, 1.09) 0.95 (0.77, 1.16)
Currently lives with romantic partner
No 277 (65.8) Ref Ref
Yes 88 (59.5) 0.90 (0.78, 1.05) 0.89 (0.76, 1.04)
Currently lives with romantic partner who uses opioids
No 312 (67.0) Ref Ref
Yes 53 (51.5) 0.77 (0.63, 0.94) 0.77 (0.62, 0.95)
Currently lives with anyone
No 92 (66.7) Ref Ref
Yes 272 (63.3) 0.95 (0.83, 1.09) 0.99 (0.85, 1.15)
Currently lives with anyone who uses opioids
No 267 (68.1) Ref Ref
Yes 82 (52.6) 0.77 (0.66, 0.91) 0.79 (0.66, 0.94)
Current living situation
Lives alone 92 (66.7) Ref Ref
Not with anyone who uses opioids 175 (68.9) 1.03 (0.89, 1.19) 1.06 (0.91, 1.24)
Someone who uses opioids 82 (52.6) 0.79 (0.65, 0.95) 0.82 (0.67, 1.01)
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, current homelessness, and OUD severity