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Table 4 Associations between network and support factors and any OD experiences in past 30 days

From: Naloxone protection, social support, network characteristics, and overdose experiences among a cohort of people who use illicit opioids in New York City

  N (%) with OD experience PR (95% CI) APR (95% CI)a
Network size (injecting)
More than 1 65 (44.5) Ref Ref
0 in Network 15 (27.3) 0.61 (0.38, 0.99) 0.80 (0.51, 1.26)
Network size (opioid using)
More than 5 143 (32.3) Ref Ref
 < 5 in Network 42 (32.1) 0.99 (0.75, 1.32) 1.04 (0.79, 1.36)
Network size (opioid using, excluding injectors)
More than 5 79 (27.7) Ref Ref
 < 5 in Network 26 (29.2) 1.05 (0.72, 1.53) 1.12 (0.78, 1.60)
Non-using network gave place to stay in past 3 months
No 104 (26.9) Ref Ref
Yes 80 (43.0) 1.60 (1.26, 2.02) 1.42 (1.10, 1.83)
Non-using network gave money in past 3 months
No 60 (27.9) Ref Ref
Yes 122 (34.3) 1.23 (0.95, 1.59) 1.05 (0.81, 1.36)
Non-using network gave emotional support in past 3 months
No 29 (21.8) Ref Ref
Yes 152 (34.9) 1.60 (1.13, 2.27) 1.41 (0.99, 2.00)
Using network gave place to stay in past 3 months
No 111 (26.9) Ref Ref
Yes 73 (45.3) 1.69 (1.34, 2.13) 1.52 (1.18, 1.95)
Using network gave money in past 3 months
No 92 (29.4) Ref Ref
Yes 92 (35.4) 1.20 (0.95, 1.53) 1.22 (0.96, 1.55)
Using network gave emotional support in past 3 months
No 54 (26.7) Ref Ref
Yes 129 (34.8) 1.30 (1.00, 1.70) 1.27 (0.96, 1.67)
Support from networks
No support 8 (13.3) Ref Ref
At least one form of support from using 13 (39.4) 2.95 (1.36, 6.40) 2.79 (1.31, 5.93)
At least one form of support from non-using 57 (28.9) 2.17 (1.10, 4.29) 1.89 (0.97, 3.67)
At least one form of support from both 104 (37.1) 2.78 (1.43, 5.41) 2.30 (1.20, 4.39)
Currently lives with romantic partner
No 133 (31.3) Ref Ref
Yes 52 (34.7) 1.11 (0.85, 1.45) 1.11 (0.95, 1.46)
Currently lives with romantic partner who uses opioids
No 148 (31.4) Ref Ref
Yes 37 (35.9) 1.14 (0.86, 1.53) 1.00 (0.72, 1.39)
Currently lives with anyone
No 41 (29.3) Ref Ref
Yes 144 (33.2) 1.13 (0.85, 1.51) 1.02 (0.75, 1.39)
Currently lives with anyone who uses opioids
No 121 (30.4) Ref Ref
Yes 58 (37.2) 1.22 (0.95, 1.57) 1.09 (0.83, 1.44)
Current living situation
Lives alone Lives alone 41 (29.3) Ref Ref
Not with anyone who uses opioids 80 (31.0) 1.06 (0.77, 1.45) 0.98 (0.71, 1.36)
Someone who uses opioids 58 (37.2) 1.27 (0.91, 1.76) 1.08 (0.75, 1.54)
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, current homelessness, and OUD severity