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  1. Content type: Brief report

    Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis sh...

    Authors: Mitch Earleywine and Sara Smucker Barnwell

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:11

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  2. Content type: Commentary

    Indonesia has an explosive HIV/AIDS epidemic starting from the beginning of this century, and it is in process to build its response. Reported AIDS cases doubled from 2003 – 2004, and approximately 54% of thes...

    Authors: Fabio Mesquita, Inang Winarso, Ingrid I Atmosukarto, Bambang Eka, Laura Nevendorff, Amala Rahmah, Patri Handoyo, Priscillia Anastasia and Rosi Angela

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:9

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  3. Content type: Brief report

    In China, the national plan to open 1000 methadone clinics over a five-year period provides a unique opportunity to assess the impacts of harm reduction in a country with concentrated HIV epidemic amongst hero...

    Authors: Ming-qiang Li, Shui-shan Lee, Zhi-gao Gan, Yi Tan, Jin-Huai Meng and Ming-liang He

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:8

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  4. Content type: Research

    Surveillance data of Sindh AIDS Control Programme, Pakistan suggest that HIV infection is rapidly increasing among IDUs in Karachi and has reached 9% in 2004–5 indicating that the country has progressed from n...

    Authors: Arshad Altaf, Sharaf Ali Shah, Najam A Zaidi, Ashraf Memon, Nadeem-ur-Rehman and Norman Wray

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:7

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  5. Content type: Research

    To estimate HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) in a drug trafficking city in southwest Sichuan Province, China.

    Authors: Lu Yin, Guangming Qin, Han-Zhu Qian, Yu Zhu, Wei Hu, Li Zhang, Kanglin Chen, Yunxia Wang, Shizhu Liu, Feng Zhou, Hui Xing, Yuhua Ruan, Ning Wang and Yiming Shao

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:6

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  6. Content type: Review

    After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased c...

    Authors: Ingo Ilja Michels, Heino Stöver and Ralf Gerlach

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:5

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  7. Content type: Research

    Fatal heroin overdose is a significant cause of mortality for injection drug users (IDUs). Many of these deaths are preventable because opiate overdoses can be quickly and safely reversed through the injection...

    Authors: Tinka Markham Piper, Sasha Rudenstine, Sharon Stancliff, Susan Sherman, Vijay Nandi, Allan Clear and Sandro Galea

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:3

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  8. Content type: Brief report

    Although the survival benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the treatment of HIV infection are well established, the clinical management of HIV disease continues to present major challenges. There are p...

    Authors: Evan Wood, Robert S Hogg, Thomas Kerr, Simon Bonner, Steffanie A Strathdee, Anita Palepu and Julio SG Montaner

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:2

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  9. Content type: Research

    Young injection drug users (IDUs) may be at increased risk of premature mortality due to the health risks associated with injection drug use including overdoses and infections. However, there has been little r...

    Authors: Cari L Miller, Thomas Kerr, Steffanie A Strathdee, Kathy Li and Evan Wood

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:1

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  10. Content type: Research

    North America's first government sanctioned medically supervised injection facility (SIF) was opened during September 2003 in Vancouver, Canada. This was in response to a large open public drug scene, high rat...

    Authors: Mark W Tyndall, Evan Wood, Ruth Zhang, Calvin Lai, Julio SG Montaner and Thomas Kerr

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:36

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  11. Content type: Research

    Previous research has shown that expressive writing is beneficial in terms of both physical and emotional health outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of a brief express...

    Authors: Karen A Baikie, Kay Wilhelm, Beverley Johnson, Mary Boskovic, Lucinda Wedgwood, Adam Finch and Gail Huon

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:34

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  12. Content type: Research

    Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk b...

    Authors: Tasnim Azim, Ezazul I Chowdhury, Masud Reza, Munir Ahmed, Mohammed T Uddin, Repon Khan, Giasuddin Ahmed, Motiur Rahman, Irona Khandakar, Sharful I Khan, David A Sack and Steffanie A Strathdee

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:33

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  13. Content type: Research

    Aboriginal injection drug users are the fastest growing group of new Human Immunodeficiency Virus cases in Canada. However, there remains a lack of comprehensive harm reduction services available to First Nati...

    Authors: Dennis Wardman and Darryl Quantz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:30

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  14. Content type: Research

    Despite the leveling off in new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco, new evidence suggests that many recent HIV infections are linked with the use of Methamphetamine (MA). Amo...

    Authors: Valerie J Rose, H Fisher Raymond, Timothy A Kellogg and Willi McFarland

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:29

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  15. Content type: Methodology

    Whilst unsupervised injectable methadone and diamorphine treatment has been part of the British treatment system for decades, the numbers receiving injectable opioid treatment (IOT) has been steadily diminishi...

    Authors: Nicholas Lintzeris, John Strang, Nicola Metrebian, Sarah Byford, Christopher Hallam, Sally Lee and Deborah Zador

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:28

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  16. Content type: Review

    Hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence is most common amongst injecting drug users where up to 98% of the population can be infected despite a low prevalence of HIV. This review considers the evidence for the effectiven...

    Authors: Nat MJ Wright and Charlotte NE Tompkins

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:27

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  17. Content type: Editorial

    InSite is North Americas first supervised injection site and a landmark public heath initiative operating in Vancouver since 2003. The program is a vital component of that cities internationally recognized har...

    Authors: Ernest Drucker

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:24

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  18. Content type: Commentary

    Case studies provide rich descriptions of significant vignettes that highlight atypical systemic or clinical problems and identify potentially important research questions. The case study presented by Venters,...

    Authors: Dan Small

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:23

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  19. Content type: Research

    Drug-induced and drug-related deaths have been increasing for the past decade throughout the US. In NYC, drug overdose accounts for nearly 900 deaths per year, a figure that exceeds the number of deaths each y...

    Authors: Nancy Worthington, Tinka Markham Piper, Sandro Galea and David Rosenthal

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:19

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  20. Content type: Research

    Analyses were performed on brain MRI scans from individuals who were frequent cannabis users (N = 10; 9 males, 1 female, mean age 21.1 ± 2.9, range: 18–27) in adolescence and similar age and sex matched young ...

    Authors: Lynn E DeLisi, Hilary C Bertisch, Kamila U Szulc, Magda Majcher, Kyle Brown, Arthika Bappal and Babak A Ardekani

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:17

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  21. Content type: Research

    Anti-harm-reduction advocates sometimes resort to pseudo-analogies to ridicule harm reduction. Those opposed to the use of smokeless tobacco as an alternative to smoking sometimes suggest that the substitution...

    Authors: Carl V Phillips, Brian Guenzel and Paul Bergen

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:15

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  22. Content type: Review

    This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sourc...

    Authors: Janie Sheridan, Sara Bennett, Carolyn Coggan, Amanda Wheeler and Karen McMillan

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:14

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  23. Content type: Research

    Circumstances surrounding injection initiation have not been well addressed in many developing country contexts. This study aimed to identify demographic factors, sexual behaviors and drug use characteristics ...

    Authors: Yingkai Cheng, Susan G Sherman, Namtip Srirat, Tasanai Vongchak, Surinda Kawichai, Jaroon Jittiwutikarn, Vinai Suriyanon, Myat Htoo Razak, Teerada Sripaipan and David D Celentano

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:10

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  24. Content type: Research

    Recent reports have suggested that Aboriginal and American Indian people are at elevated risk of HIV infection. We undertook the present study to compare socio-demographic and risk variables between Aboriginal...

    Authors: Cari L Miller, Steffanie A Strathdee, Patricia M Spittal, Thomas Kerr, Kathy Li, Martin T Schechter and Evan Wood

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:9

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  25. Content type: Research

    We sought to assess injection practices, means of acquiring and disposing of syringes, and utilization and knowledge of harm reduction resources among injection drug users (IDUs) entering methadone maintenance...

    Authors: Jennifer McNeely, Julia H Arnsten and Marc N Gourevitch

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:8

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  26. Content type: Case Report

    Second Generation sub-population HIV Surveillance was undertaken in Kashgar City and Shache County, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China between December 2003 and January 2004, targeting injecting and mixed met...

    Authors: Ni Mingjian, KM Wheeler, J Cheng, Dong Yonghai, W Chen, C Fitzwarryne and J Wang

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:7

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  27. Content type: Research

    The growing trends in opioid abuse, assessment of the abuse liability of prescription opioid products, and growing efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop 'abuse-resistant' formulations highlight a n...

    Authors: Stephen F Butler, Christine Benoit, Simon H Budman, Kathrine C Fernandez, Cynthia McCormick, Synne Wing Venuti and Nathaniel Katz

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:5

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  28. Content type: Review

    Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and ...

    Authors: Han-Zhu Qian, Joseph E Schumacher, Huey T Chen and Yu-Hua Ruan

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:4

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  29. Content type: Research

    There is growing evidence of the public health and community harms associated with crack cocaine smoking, particularly the risk of blood-borne transmission through non-parenteral routes. In response, community...

    Authors: Kate Shannon, Tomiye Ishida, Robert Morgan, Arthur Bear, Megan Oleson, Thomas Kerr and Mark W Tyndall

    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:1

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