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  1. Few investigations have assessed risk behaviours and social-structural contexts of risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Northeast India, where injecting drug use is the major route of HIV transmission. In...

    Authors: Venkatesan Chakrapani, Peter A Newman, Murali Shunmugam and Robert Dubrow
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2011 8:9
  2. Unsafe reuse of injection equipment in hospitals is an on-going threat to patient safety in many parts of Africa. The extent of this problem is difficult to measure. Standard WHO injection safety assessment pr...

    Authors: Mbah P Okwen, Bedes Y Ngem, Fozao A Alomba, Mireille V Capo, Savanna R Reid and Ebong C Ewang
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2011 8:4
  3. An association between leukoencephalopathy, a disease of the white matter of the brain, and smoking heroin is well recognized. This paper describes 27 cases of leukoencephalopathy identified in two cities in B...

    Authors: Jane A Buxton, Renee Sebastian, Lorne Clearsky, Natalie Angus, Lena Shah, Marcus Lem and Sian D Spacey
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2011 8:3
  4. In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in ...

    Authors: Diana Rossi, Dhan Zunino Singh, María Pía Pawlowicz, Graciela Touzé, Melissa Bolyard, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Milagros Sandoval and Samuel R Friedman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2011 8:2
  5. It has been suggested that cigarette smokers will switch to alternative oral nicotine delivery products to reduce their health risks if informed of the relative risk difference. However, it is important to ass...

    Authors: Richard J O'Connor, Kaila J Norton, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Martin C Mahoney, K Michael Cummings and Ron Borland
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2011 8:1
  6. Methadone is a synthetic opiate mu receptor agonist that is widely used to substitute for illicit opiates in the management of opiate dependence. It helps prevent opiate users from injecting and sharing needle...

    Authors: Nasir Mohamad, Nor HidayahAbu Bakar, Nurfadhlina Musa, Nazila Talib and Rusli Ismail
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:30
  7. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of opioid substitution therapy (OST) for injecting drug users (IDUs) in middle and high-income countries but little evidence regarding the provision of OST by non-g...

    Authors: Gregory Armstrong, Michelle Kermode, Charan Sharma, Biangtung Langkham and Nick Crofts
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:29
  8. The main objectives of this study are to describe the smoked cocaine user's profile in socially-depressed areas and their needs from a harm-reduction perspective, to investigate their use of smoking crack and ...

    Authors: Jordi Delas, Elena Adán, Olga Díaz, Margarita Aguas, Montserrat Pons and Ricardo Fuertes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:27
  9. Injecting drug users (IDU) remain an important population at risk for blood-borne infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the Netherlands,...

    Authors: Imke Schreuder, Marianne AB van der Sande, Matty de Wit, Monique Bongaerts, Charles AB Boucher, Esther A Croes and Maaike G van Veen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:25
  10. Nonmedical prescription opioid use has emerged as a major public health concern in recent years, particularly in rural Appalachia. Little is known about the routes of administration (ROA) involved in nonmedica...

    Authors: April M Young, Jennifer R Havens and Carl G Leukefeld
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:24
  11. There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and m...

    Authors: Anna Buadze, Rudolf Stohler, Beate Schulze, Michael Schaub and Michael Liebrenz
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:22
  12. Many health professionals engage in providing health services for drug users; however, there is evidence of stigmatisation by some health professionals. Prescription drug misusers as a specific group, may also...

    Authors: Rachael Butler and Janie Sheridan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:21
  13. Injection drug users (IDU) commonly seek manual assistance with illicit drug injections, a practice known to be associated with various health-related harms. We investigated the social structural factors that ...

    Authors: Nadia Fairbairn, Will Small, Natasha Van Borek, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:20
  14. Substance use during pregnancy often leads to involvement in the child welfare system, resulting in multiple social service systems and service providers working with families to achieve successful child welfa...

    Authors: Kenneth J McCann, Jean E Twomey, Donna Caldwell, Rosemary Soave, Lynne Andreozzi Fontaine and Barry M Lester
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:19
  15. Tobacco retailers are potential public health partners for tobacco harm reduction (THR). THR is the substitution of highly reduced-risk nicotine products, such as smokeless tobacco (ST) or pharmaceutical nicot...

    Authors: Karyn K Heavner, Zale Rosenberg, Francis Tenorio and Carl V Phillips
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:18
  16. Drug use is prevalent throughout prison populations, and, despite advances in drug treatment programmes for inmates, access to and the quality of these programmes remain substantially poorer than those availab...

    Authors: Heino Stöver and Ingo Ilja Michels
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:17
  17. Solvent abuse is a particularly serious issue affecting Aboriginal people. Here we examine the association between solvent use and socio-demographic variables, drug-related risk factors, and pathogen prevalenc...

    Authors: Souradet Y Shaw, Kathleen N Deering, Ann M Jolly and John L Wylie
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:16
  18. An important challenge in conducting social research of specific relevance to harm reduction programs is locating hidden populations of consumers of substances like cannabis who typically report few adverse or...

    Authors: Andrew D Hathaway, Elaine Hyshka, Patricia G Erickson, Mark Asbridge, Serge Brochu, Marie-Marthe Cousineau, Cameron Duff and David Marsh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:15
  19. Narghile is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of narghil...

    Authors: Najla S Dar-Odeh, Faris G Bakri, Mahmoud K Al-Omiri, Hamzeh M Al-Mashni, Hazem A Eimar, Ameen S Khraisat, Shatha MK Abu-Hammad, Abdul-Aziz F Dudeen, Mohamed Nur Abdallah, Samer MZied Alkilani, Louai Al-Shami and Osama A Abu-Hammad
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:10
  20. Although previous studies have identified high levels of drug-related harm in Thailand, little is known about illicit drug overdose experiences among Thai drug users. We sought to investigate non-fatal overdos...

    Authors: M-J Milloy, Nadia Fairbairn, Kanna Hayashi, Paisan Suwannawong, Karyn Kaplan, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:9
  21. Injection drug users continue to be at high risk of HIV and HCV. Research has shown that needle exchange programs (NEP) decrease injection frequency, reduce syringe reuse, and reduce needle sharing, though som...

    Authors: Andrea K Knittel, Patricia A Wren and Lemont Gore
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:8
  22. Reports from Thailand suggest that a growing number of people who inject drugs (IDU) are now injecting midazolam, a legal benzodiazepine with potent amnestic and ventilatory depressant effects. We therefore so...

    Authors: Thomas Kerr, Niyada Kiatying-Angsulee, Nadia Fairbairn, Kanna Hayashi, Paisan Suwannawong, Karyn Kaplan, Calvin Lai and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:7
  23. Assisted injection and public injection have both been associated with a variety of individual harms including an increased risk of HIV infection. As a means of informing local IDU-driven interventions that ta...

    Authors: Elisa Lloyd-Smith, Beth S Rachlis, Diane Tobin, Dave Stone, Kathy Li, Will Small, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:6
  24. We sought to explore the effect of crystal methamphetamine use on the risk of experiencing malnutrition among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Risk of malnutrition was defined as being hungry but no...

    Authors: Dan Werb, Thomas Kerr, Ruth Zhang, Julio SG Montaner and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:5
  25. The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Cl...

    Authors: Ronald Swartz
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:3
  26. Our objective was to examine factors associated with distributive injection equipment sharing and how needle exchange programs (NEPs) can help reduce distributive sharing among injection drug users (IDUs).

    Authors: Carol Strike, Daniel Z Buchman, Russell C Callaghan, Cass Wender, Susan Anstice, Brian Lester, Nick Scrivo, Janine Luce and Margaret Millson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:2
  27. Needle exchange programs chase political as well as epidemiological dragons, carrying within them both implicit moral and political goals. In the exchange model of syringe distribution, injection drug users (I...

    Authors: Dan Small, Andrea Glickman, Galen Rigter and Thia Walter
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2010 7:1
  28. Injections of mixtures prepared from crushed tablets contain insoluble particles which can cause embolisms and other complications. Although many particles can be removed by filtration, many injecting drug use...

    Authors: Stuart McLean, Raimondo Bruno, Susan Brandon and Barbara de Graaff
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:37
  29. To redress gaps in injection drug users' (IDUs) knowledge about hepatitis risk and prevention, we developed a brief intervention to be delivered to IDUs at syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in three US cities. ...

    Authors: Lauretta E Grau, Traci C Green, Merrill Singer, Ricky N Bluthenthal, Patricia A Marshall and Robert Heimer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:36
  30. Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential;...

    Authors: Amanda Reiman
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:35
  31. Recent data suggest that globally, between 5% and 10% of all new HIV cases are the result of unsafe injecting practices, and experts agree that reducing these practices is key to tackling the spread of HIV. An...

    Authors: Daniel Werb and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:33
  32. There is a need for services that effectively and comprehensively address the complex needs of women with substance use issues and their children. A growing body of literature supports the relevance of integra...

    Authors: Wendy Sword, Susan Jack, Alison Niccols, Karen Milligan, Joanna Henderson and Lehana Thabane
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:32
  33. Five cases of severe neutropenia (neutrophil counts < 0.5 per 109 cells/L) associated with exposure to cocaine and levamisole, an antihelimithic agent no longer available in Canada, were identified in Alberta in ...

    Authors: Lewinda Knowles, Jane A Buxton, Nataliya Skuridina, Ifeoma Achebe, Donald LeGatt, Shihe Fan, Nancy Yan Zhu and James Talbot
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:30
  34. Nicotine is so desirable to many people that when they are given only the options of consuming nicotine by smoking, with its high health costs, and not consuming nicotine at all, many opt for the former. Few s...

    Authors: Carl V Phillips
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:29
  35. In Indonesia, an ongoing government "war on drugs" has resulted in numerous arrests and anecdotal reports of abuse in detention, but to date there has been little documentation or analysis of this issue. JANGK...

    Authors: Sara LM Davis, Agus Triwahyuono and Risa Alexander
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:28
  36. Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than convent...

    Authors: Karen Bogen, Lois Biener, Catherine A Garrett, Jane Allen, K Michael Cummings, Anne Hartman, Stephen Marcus, Ann McNeill, Richard J O'Connor, Mark Parascandola and Linda Pederson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:27