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  1. Naloxone has been evidenced widely as a means of reducing mortality resulting from opiate overdose, yet its distribution to drug users remains limited. However, it is drug users who are most likely to be avail...

    Authors: Romina Lopez Gaston, David Best, Victoria Manning and Ed Day
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:26
  2. Smoking cessation has important immediate health benefits. The comparative short-term effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions is not well known. We aimed to determine the relative effectiveness of nic...

    Authors: Edward J Mills, Ping Wu, Dean Spurden, Jon O Ebbert and Kumanan Wilson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:25
  3. Ukraine has experienced an increase in injection drug use since the 1990s. An increase in HIV and hepatitis C virus infections has followed, but not measures of prevalence and risk factors. The purposes of thi...

    Authors: Kostyantyn V Dumchev, Ruslan Soldyshev, Han-Zhu Qian, Olexandr O Zezyulin, Susan D Chandler, Pavel Slobodyanyuk, Larisa Moroz and Joseph E Schumacher
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:23
  4. The HIV epidemic in Russia has been driven by the unsafe injection of drugs, predominantly heroin and the ephedrine derived psychostimulants. Understanding differences in HIV risk behaviors among injectors ass...

    Authors: Gina Rae Kruse, Russell Barbour, Robert Heimer, Alla V Shaboltas, Olga V Toussova, Irving F Hoffman and Andrei P Kozlov
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:22
  5. The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs) in spreading of blood-borne infections – specially HIV/AIDS – is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Ira...

    Authors: Hassan Rafiey, Hooman Narenjiha, Peymaneh Shirinbayan, Roya Noori, Morteza Javadipour, Mohsen Roshanpajouh, Mercedeh Samiei and Shervin Assari
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:21
  6. The concept of risk dominates the HIV/AIDS literature pertaining to People Who Use Injection Drugs (PWUID). In contrast the associated concept of worry is infrequently applied, even though it can produce impor...

    Authors: Heidi Exner, Erin K Gibson, Ryan Stone, Jennifer Lindquist, Laura Cowen and Eric A Roth
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:20
  7. Among persons who inject drugs (IDU), illicit drug use often occurs in hospitals and contributes to patient expulsion and/or high rates of leaving against medical advice (AMA) when withdrawal is inadequately m...

    Authors: Beth S Rachlis, Thomas Kerr, Julio SG Montaner and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:19
  8. Opioid overdose in Russia is a problem that has grown more severe as heroin abuse expanded over the past decade, yet few studies have explored it in detail. In order to gain a clearer understanding of the situ...

    Authors: Lauretta E Grau, Traci C Green, Mikhail Torban, Ksenia Blinnikova, Evgeny Krupitsky, Ruslan Ilyuk, Andrei P Kozlov and Robert Heimer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:17
  9. In light of overwhelming evidence that access to sterile injection equipment reduces incidence of injection-attributable bloodborne disease without encouraging drug use, many localities have authorized sterile...

    Authors: Corey S Davis and Leo Beletsky
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:16
  10. Although prevention of opiate overdose has been gaining attention as a harm reduction measure with community drug users, there is scarce information about drug overdose in prison. In correctional institutions ...

    Authors: Carmen E Albizu-García, Adriana Hernández-Viver, Jacqueline Feal and José F Rodríguez-Orengo
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:15
  11. Despite the well-known risks of smoking, policy, social pressure, and accessible cessation programs, tens of millions of North American adults continue smoking rather than quitting or switching to less harmful...

    Authors: Karyn K Heavner, Zale Rosenberg and Carl V Phillips
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:14
  12. Of the nearly 100,000 street-based IDUs in Pakistan, 20% have HIV. We investigated the recent rise in HIV prevalence from 12 to 52% among IDUs in Sargodha despite > 70% coverage with syringe exchanges.

    Authors: Adnan A Khan, Ahmad B Awan, Salman U Qureshi, Ali Razaque and Syed T Zafar
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:13
  13. Illicit drug overdose deaths (IDD) relate to individual drug dose and context of use, including use with other drugs and alcohol. IDD peaked in British Columbia (BC) in 1998 with 417 deaths, and continues to b...

    Authors: Jane A Buxton, Trevor Skutezky, Andrew W Tu, Bilal Waheed, Alex Wallace and Sunny Mak
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:9
  14. The prevalence of HIV in Vancouver, British Columbia was subject to two distinct periods of rapid increase. The first occurred in the 1980s due to high incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM), and the ...

    Authors: Colin W McInnes, Eric Druyts, Stephanie S Harvard, Mark Gilbert, Mark W Tyndall, Viviane D Lima, Evan Wood, Julio SG Montaner and Robert S Hogg
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:5
  15. Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge ...

    Authors: M Suresh Kumar, Richard D Natale, B Langkham, Charan Sharma, Rachel Kabi and Gordon Mortimore
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:4
  16. Both syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and pharmacy sales of syringes are available in Estonia, though the current high incidence and high prevalence of HIV among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia...

    Authors: Sigrid Vorobjov, Anneli Uusküla, Katri Abel-Ollo, Ave Talu, Kristi Rüütel and Don C Des Jarlais
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:3
  17. Opioid addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease and remains a major public health challenge. Despite important expansions of access to conventional treatments, there are still significant proportions of affec...

    Authors: Candice C Gartry, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Nancy Laliberté and Martin T Schechter
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:2
  18. Programmatic data from New York City syringe exchange programs suggest that many clients visit the programs infrequently and take few syringes per transaction, while separate survey data from individuals using...

    Authors: Daliah I Heller, Denise Paone, Anne Siegler and Adam Karpati
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2009 6:1
  19. The BC Harm Reduction Strategies and Services (HRSS) policy states that each health authority (HA) and their community partners will provide a full range of harm reduction (HR) services to their jurisdictions ...

    Authors: Jane A Buxton, Emma C Preston, Sunny Mak, Stephanie Harvard and Jenny Barley
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:37
  20. The Mexico-U.S. border region is experiencing rising rates of blood-borne infections among injection drug users (IDUs), emphasizing the need for harm reduction interventions.

    Authors: Morgan M Philbin, Remedios Lozada, María Luisa Zúñiga, Andrea Mantsios, Patricia Case, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Carl A Latkin and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:36
  21. Aboriginal people experience a disproportionate burden of HIV infection among the adult population in Canada; however, less is known regarding the prevalence and characteristics of HIV positivity among drug-us...

    Authors: Brandon DL Marshall, Thomas Kerr, Chris Livingstone, Kathy Li, Julio SG Montaner and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:35
  22. The region situated where the borders of Mexico, Texas and New Mexico meet is known as 'Paso del Norte'. The Paso del Norte Collaborative was formed to study the seroprevalence of select pathogens and associat...

    Authors: Joan P Baumbach, Lily N Foster, Mark Mueller, Michelle Firestone Cruz, Sonia Arbona, Sharon Melville, Rebeca Ramos and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:33
  23. Unsafe injection practices are prevalent among injection drug users (IDU) and have resulted in numerous forms of drug-related harm including HIV/HCV transmission and other bacterial and viral infections. North...

    Authors: Danya Fast, Will Small, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:32
  24. There is evidence of a high prevalence of prescription opioid (PO) and crack use among street drug users in Toronto. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe drug use behaviours and preferences as...

    Authors: Michelle Firestone and Benedikt Fischer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:30
  25. To assess the predictors and prevalence of HIV infection among injection drug users in highly endemic regions along major drug trafficking routes in three Chinese provinces.

    Authors: Yujiang Jia, Fan Lu, Gang Zeng, Xinhua Sun, Yan Xiao, Lin Lu, Wei Liu, Mingjian Ni, Shuquan Qu, Chunmei Li, Jianbo Liu, Pingsheng Wu and Sten H Vermund
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:29
  26. Stigma is a key barrier for the delivery of care to patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In the Asia region, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has disproportionately affected socially marginalised groups, in particular,...

    Authors: Kit Yee Chan, Mark A Stoové and Daniel D Reidpath
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:28
  27. In an attempt to reduce harm related to gambling problems, an Internet sports betting service provider, bwin Interactive Entertainment, AG (bwin), imposes limits on the amount of money that users can deposit into...

    Authors: Anja Broda, Debi A LaPlante, Sarah E Nelson, Richard A LaBrie, Leslie B Bosworth and Howard J Shaffer
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:27
  28. The epidemic of HIV/AIDS linked to injecting drug usage is one of the most explosive in recent years. After a historical epicentre in Europe, South and North America, at present it is clearly the main cause of...

    Authors: Fabio Mesquita, David Jacka, Dominique Ricard, Graham Shaw, Han Tieru, Hu Yifei, Katharine Poundstone, Madeline Salva, Masami Fujita and Nirmal Singh
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:26
  29. To develop and evaluate the comparative effectiveness of behavioural interventions of enhanced prevention counselling (EPC) and simple educational counselling (SEC) in reducing hepatitis C viral (HCV) infectio...

    Authors: Mohammed Abou-Saleh, Paul Davis, Philip Rice, Ken Checinski, Colin Drummond, Douglas Maxwell, Christine Godfrey, Christopher John, Betsy Corrin, Christopher Tibbs, Adenekan Oyefeso, Marian de Ruiter and Hamid Ghodse
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:25
  30. The article presents information on the latest drug policy change in the Russian Criminal Code: a decrease of the drug threshold amounts for which possession can lead to a criminal liability. Also, the article...

    Authors: Lev Levinson
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:22
  31. Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the assoc...

    Authors: Babak Eshrati, Rahim Taghizadeh Asl, Colleen Anne Dell, Parviz Afshar, Peggy MargaretE Millson, Mohammad Kamali and John Weekes
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:21
  32. Methadone is a synthetic, narcotic analgesic used in the treatment of drug misuse. Tragedies involving children being poisoned by the accidental ingestion of methadone are no longer a rare occurrence. Followin...

    Authors: Annemarie Mullin, Rosanna J McAuley, Derrett J Watts, Ilana B Crome and Roger N Bloor
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:15
  33. Injection drug users (IDUs) in San Juan, Puerto Rico are characterized by high rates of daily injecting, injection of shared drugs, re-use of injection syringes, and use of shooting galleries. They lack adequa...

    Authors: HAnn Finlinson, Héctor M Colón, Juan Negrón and Rafaela R Robles
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2008 5:14