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  1. The north-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland are two of the six high HIV prevalence states in the country, and the main route of HIV transmission is injecting drug use. Understanding the pathways to in...

    Authors: Michelle Kermode, Verity Longleng, Bangkim Chingsubam Singh, Jane Hocking, Biangtung Langkham and Nick Crofts
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:19
  2. This study aimed to investigate patterns and context of use of BZP-party pills, function of use, and positive and negative effects experienced by a sample of New Zealand young people who had used the products.

    Authors: Rachael A Butler and Janie L Sheridan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:18
  3. Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medica...

    Authors: Thomas J O'Connell and Ché B Bou-Matar
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:16
  4. Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is among the most widely studied treatments for opiate dependence with proven benefits for patients and society. When misused, however, methadone can also be lethal. The i...

    Authors: Michael Varenbut, David Teplin, Jeff Daiter, Barak Raz, Andrew Worster, Pasha Emadi-Konjin, Nathan Frank, Alan Konyer, Iris Greenwald and Melissa Snider-Adler
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:15
  5. Reaching hard-to-reach and high-risk injecting drug users (IDUs) is one of the most important challenges for contemporary needle syringe programs (NSPs). The aim of this review is to examine, based upon the av...

    Authors: Md Mofizul Islam and Katherine M Conigrave
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:14
  6. Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis sh...

    Authors: Mitch Earleywine and Sara Smucker Barnwell
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:11
  7. Indonesia has an explosive HIV/AIDS epidemic starting from the beginning of this century, and it is in process to build its response. Reported AIDS cases doubled from 2003 – 2004, and approximately 54% of thes...

    Authors: Fabio Mesquita, Inang Winarso, Ingrid I Atmosukarto, Bambang Eka, Laura Nevendorff, Amala Rahmah, Patri Handoyo, Priscillia Anastasia and Rosi Angela
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:9
  8. In China, the national plan to open 1000 methadone clinics over a five-year period provides a unique opportunity to assess the impacts of harm reduction in a country with concentrated HIV epidemic amongst hero...

    Authors: Ming-qiang Li, Shui-shan Lee, Zhi-gao Gan, Yi Tan, Jin-Huai Meng and Ming-liang He
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:8
  9. Surveillance data of Sindh AIDS Control Programme, Pakistan suggest that HIV infection is rapidly increasing among IDUs in Karachi and has reached 9% in 2004–5 indicating that the country has progressed from n...

    Authors: Arshad Altaf, Sharaf Ali Shah, Najam A Zaidi, Ashraf Memon, Nadeem-ur-Rehman and Norman Wray
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:7
  10. To estimate HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) in a drug trafficking city in southwest Sichuan Province, China.

    Authors: Lu Yin, Guangming Qin, Han-Zhu Qian, Yu Zhu, Wei Hu, Li Zhang, Kanglin Chen, Yunxia Wang, Shizhu Liu, Feng Zhou, Hui Xing, Yuhua Ruan, Ning Wang and Yiming Shao
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:6
  11. After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased c...

    Authors: Ingo Ilja Michels, Heino Stöver and Ralf Gerlach
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:5
  12. Fatal heroin overdose is a significant cause of mortality for injection drug users (IDUs). Many of these deaths are preventable because opiate overdoses can be quickly and safely reversed through the injection...

    Authors: Tinka Markham Piper, Sasha Rudenstine, Sharon Stancliff, Susan Sherman, Vijay Nandi, Allan Clear and Sandro Galea
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:3
  13. Although the survival benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the treatment of HIV infection are well established, the clinical management of HIV disease continues to present major challenges. There are p...

    Authors: Evan Wood, Robert S Hogg, Thomas Kerr, Simon Bonner, Steffanie A Strathdee, Anita Palepu and Julio SG Montaner
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:2
  14. Young injection drug users (IDUs) may be at increased risk of premature mortality due to the health risks associated with injection drug use including overdoses and infections. However, there has been little r...

    Authors: Cari L Miller, Thomas Kerr, Steffanie A Strathdee, Kathy Li and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2007 4:1
  15. North America's first government sanctioned medically supervised injection facility (SIF) was opened during September 2003 in Vancouver, Canada. This was in response to a large open public drug scene, high rat...

    Authors: Mark W Tyndall, Evan Wood, Ruth Zhang, Calvin Lai, Julio SG Montaner and Thomas Kerr
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:36
  16. Previous research has shown that expressive writing is beneficial in terms of both physical and emotional health outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of a brief express...

    Authors: Karen A Baikie, Kay Wilhelm, Beverley Johnson, Mary Boskovic, Lucinda Wedgwood, Adam Finch and Gail Huon
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:34
  17. Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk b...

    Authors: Tasnim Azim, Ezazul I Chowdhury, Masud Reza, Munir Ahmed, Mohammed T Uddin, Repon Khan, Giasuddin Ahmed, Motiur Rahman, Irona Khandakar, Sharful I Khan, David A Sack and Steffanie A Strathdee
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:33
  18. Aboriginal injection drug users are the fastest growing group of new Human Immunodeficiency Virus cases in Canada. However, there remains a lack of comprehensive harm reduction services available to First Nati...

    Authors: Dennis Wardman and Darryl Quantz
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:30
  19. Despite the leveling off in new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco, new evidence suggests that many recent HIV infections are linked with the use of Methamphetamine (MA). Amo...

    Authors: Valerie J Rose, H Fisher Raymond, Timothy A Kellogg and Willi McFarland
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:29
  20. Whilst unsupervised injectable methadone and diamorphine treatment has been part of the British treatment system for decades, the numbers receiving injectable opioid treatment (IOT) has been steadily diminishi...

    Authors: Nicholas Lintzeris, John Strang, Nicola Metrebian, Sarah Byford, Christopher Hallam, Sally Lee and Deborah Zador
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:28
  21. Hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence is most common amongst injecting drug users where up to 98% of the population can be infected despite a low prevalence of HIV. This review considers the evidence for the effectiven...

    Authors: Nat MJ Wright and Charlotte NE Tompkins
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:27
  22. InSite is North Americas first supervised injection site and a landmark public heath initiative operating in Vancouver since 2003. The program is a vital component of that cities internationally recognized har...

    Authors: Ernest Drucker
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:24
  23. Case studies provide rich descriptions of significant vignettes that highlight atypical systemic or clinical problems and identify potentially important research questions. The case study presented by Venters,...

    Authors: Dan Small
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:23
  24. Drug-induced and drug-related deaths have been increasing for the past decade throughout the US. In NYC, drug overdose accounts for nearly 900 deaths per year, a figure that exceeds the number of deaths each y...

    Authors: Nancy Worthington, Tinka Markham Piper, Sandro Galea and David Rosenthal
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:19
  25. Analyses were performed on brain MRI scans from individuals who were frequent cannabis users (N = 10; 9 males, 1 female, mean age 21.1 ± 2.9, range: 18–27) in adolescence and similar age and sex matched young ...

    Authors: Lynn E DeLisi, Hilary C Bertisch, Kamila U Szulc, Magda Majcher, Kyle Brown, Arthika Bappal and Babak A Ardekani
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:17
  26. Anti-harm-reduction advocates sometimes resort to pseudo-analogies to ridicule harm reduction. Those opposed to the use of smokeless tobacco as an alternative to smoking sometimes suggest that the substitution...

    Authors: Carl V Phillips, Brian Guenzel and Paul Bergen
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:15
  27. This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sourc...

    Authors: Janie Sheridan, Sara Bennett, Carolyn Coggan, Amanda Wheeler and Karen McMillan
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:14
  28. Circumstances surrounding injection initiation have not been well addressed in many developing country contexts. This study aimed to identify demographic factors, sexual behaviors and drug use characteristics ...

    Authors: Yingkai Cheng, Susan G Sherman, Namtip Srirat, Tasanai Vongchak, Surinda Kawichai, Jaroon Jittiwutikarn, Vinai Suriyanon, Myat Htoo Razak, Teerada Sripaipan and David D Celentano
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:10
  29. Recent reports have suggested that Aboriginal and American Indian people are at elevated risk of HIV infection. We undertook the present study to compare socio-demographic and risk variables between Aboriginal...

    Authors: Cari L Miller, Steffanie A Strathdee, Patricia M Spittal, Thomas Kerr, Kathy Li, Martin T Schechter and Evan Wood
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:9
  30. We sought to assess injection practices, means of acquiring and disposing of syringes, and utilization and knowledge of harm reduction resources among injection drug users (IDUs) entering methadone maintenance...

    Authors: Jennifer McNeely, Julia H Arnsten and Marc N Gourevitch
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:8
  31. Second Generation sub-population HIV Surveillance was undertaken in Kashgar City and Shache County, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China between December 2003 and January 2004, targeting injecting and mixed met...

    Authors: Ni Mingjian, KM Wheeler, J Cheng, Dong Yonghai, W Chen, C Fitzwarryne and J Wang
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2006 3:7